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NBSIR 76-1094 (R) 



Standards for Computer Aided 
Manufacturing 



John M. Evans, Jr., Ph.D., Project Manager 

Joseph T. O'Neill 

John L. Little 

James S. Albus, Ph.D. 

Anthony J. Barbera, Ph.D. 

Dennis W. Fife, Ph.D. 

Elizabeth N. Fong 
David E. Gilsinn, Ph.D. 

Frances E. Holberton 
Brian G. Lucas, Ph.D. 

Gordon E. Lyon, Ph.D. 

Beatrice A. S. Marron 
Albercht J. Neumann 
Mabel V. Vickers 
Justin C. Walker 



Office of Developmental Automation and Control Technology 
Institute for Computer Sciences and Technology 
National Bureau of Standards 
Washington, D. C. 20234 



Second Interim Report 
October, 1976 



Prepared for 

Manufacturing Technology Division 
Air Force Materials Laboratory 
Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433 



NBSIR 76-1094 (R) 



STANDARDS FOR COMPUTER AIDED 
MANUFACTURING 



John M. Evans, Jr., Ph D., Project Manager 

Joseph T. O'Neill 

John L. Little 

James S. Albus, Ph D. 

Anthony J. Barbera, Ph.D. 

Dennis W. Fife, Ph.D. 

Elizabeth N. Fong 
David E. Gilsinn, Ph D. 

Frances E. Holberton 
Brian G. Lucas, Ph D 
Gordon E. Lyon, Ph D. 

Beatrice A. S. Marron 
Albercht J. Neumann 
Mabel V. Vickers 
Justin C. Walker 



Office of Developmental Automation and Control Technology 
Institute for Computer Sciences and Technology 
National Bureau of Standards 
Washington, D. C. 20234 



Second Interim Report 
October, 1976 



Prepared for 

Manufacturing Technology Division 
Air Force Materials Laboratory 
Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433 




U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE. Elliot L. Richardson, Secretary 

Edward O. Vetter, Under Secretary 

Dr. Betsy Ancker-Johnson, Assistant Secretary for Science and Technology 
NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS, Ernest Ambler. Acting Director 




TABLE OF CONTENTS 



I. INTRODUCTION 1 

Table 1 2 

Table 2 4 

II. CAM STANDARDS 

A. NC Part Programming Languages 7 

B. CAD/CAM Interface 11 

III. COMPUTER SYSTEMS STANDARDS 

A. Communication Standards 

1. Communication Standards - Hardware 18 

2. Communication Codes 36 

3. Communication Protocol Standards (Link Level) 50 

4. Communication Protocol (Network Level) 52 

B. Computer Programming Languages 

1. General Purpose Programming Languages 56 

2. Simulation Languages 63 

3. Machine Oriented System Implementation 64 

4. Artificial Intelligence Languages 68 

C. Data Base Management Systems 

1. CODASYL Data Base Task Group Specification 69 

2. Non-CODASYL Self-Contained Approach 71 

3. Non-CODASYL Host Languages Approach 73 

4. Relational Approach 74 

D. Operating Systems 75 

E. Validation and Testing 76 

F. Documentation 79 

G. Media 87 



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I. INTRODUCTION 



The Air Force is initiating a major new program to accelerate the establishment of 
Integrated Computer Aided Manufacturing (ICAM) in discrete part batch manufacturing 
industries in the United States, specifically in the aerospace industry. The National 
Bureau of Standards is providing support to that program by analyzing existing standards 
relevant to Integrated Computer Aided Manufacturing. 

This document is the second interim report to the Air Force Manufacturing Technology 
Division of the Air Force Materials Laboratory at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base on 
the ICAM support project. This report covers tasks 2 and 3 of the 5 tasks of the project: 

Task 2 Analyze existing standards 

Task 3 Assess the usage of standards in industry. 

The report takes the form of an annotated bibliography with common format data 
sheets for ease of reference. Except for noting the relation to other standards, 
including competitive standards, there are no evaluations or recommendations made on 
the possible use of these standards in the Air Force ICAM program. This report does 
provide a comprehensive reference data base on those formal and de facto standards that 
are considered to be relevant to the Air Force program. 

Using this data base, the third interim report will evaluate the use of these 
standards in the Air Force Program and will hypothesize optimal standards for that Program. 

The context of selecting these standards for discussion was provided in the first 
interim report of this project, issued July, 1976. The key concepts identified in 
that report for choosing system standards were: 

° System integration: data and communication interfaces between CAM application 
programs. 

° Software portability: interfaces between CAM programs and the host computer 
system, including languages, operating systems, and data base management 
system interfaces. 

0 Integration of distributed systems: interfaces between computers in distributed 
systems . 

These concepts led to identification and investigation of the communication and 
computer system standards included in this report. In addition, data sheets are included 
on the formal standards that exist for CAM: NC part programming languages at the interface 
between CAD and CAM. 

An explanation of the categories in the data sheets is given, with examples, in 

Table 1. 



TABLE 1 



DATA SHEET FORMAT 


ENTRY 


EXPLANATION 


EXAMPLES 


1. Designation 


Document ID numbers from 
highest to lowest levels 
of approval 


'FIPS PUB 1, ANSI X3.4- 
1968, EIA . . . 


2. Title 


Name of standard 


'American Standard Code 
for Information Inter- 
change (ASCII) 


3. Maintenance - 
Authori ty 


Name of organization(s) 
authorized to maintain 
the specification 


'ANSI X3L2 or 
" IBM Corporation 


4. Scope 


General statement regard- 
ing the functional use of 
the standard 


"Hardware, asynchronous 
data transmission 


5. Relationship to 
Other Standards 


Name of other standards 
noting relationship that 
those other standards have 
with this standard; relation- 
ships may be: superset (of), 
subset, extension, imple- 
mentation, base (for), dia- 
lect, minor deviation (from), 
etc. 


"CODASYL COBOL (superset) 
or 

'ANSI X3. 23-1968 (subset) 


6. Competitive 
Standards 


Name other standards that 
tend to be mutually exclusive 


•ANSI X3. 4-1968 or 
'EBCDIC 


7. Standardization 
Status 


Cite major specification 
and acceptance actions 


‘ANSI standardization 
completed May 1966; 
Revision being 
bal lotted upon, action 
dated December 1976; 
New designation to be 
ANSI X3. 9-1976 


8. Implementation 
Status 


On what machines/systems 
has it been installed 


"All general purpose 
computers or 
* IBM/370, Burroughs 
B-6700 


9. Known Manufacturing 
Uses 


Generic or specific 
applications in manufac- 
turing industry 


"Business applications or 
"Scientific applications 
"Inventory control, parts 
cataloguing or 
"Numerical control: 
positioning and contouri 



2 



10. Known Sources of 
Information 


List of primary infor- 
mation source(s) for 
future inquiries on 
specific standards 




11. Probable Sources 
of Information 


List of secondary 
sources of information 


•CAM- I, Inc. 

'Boeing Computer Services 
Inc. 


12. Bibliography 


Citation of the standard 
and, perhaps, related 
documents 


•FIPS PUB 1, ANSI X3.4- 
1968 or 

•FIPS PUB 23, ANSI X3.28- 
1968; COBOL Journal of 
Development, 1974 


13. Comments 


Clarifying information, as 
needed 




14. Footnotes 


Other information, as needed 





3 



TABLE 2 



Abbreviations of Names of 
Standards Organizations 

FIPS Federal Information Processing Standards 

ANSI American National Standards Institute, Inc. 

EIA Electronic Industries Association 

ISO International Organization for Standardization 

CCITT International Consultative Committee on Telegraph and Telephone 

CBEMA Computer and Business Equipment Manufacturers Assocation 

IPC Institute for Printed Circuits 

NASA National Aeronautics Space Administration 

CAM-I Computer Aided Manufacturing - International, Inc. 

IEEE Institute for Electrical & Electronics Engineer, Inc. 

NMTBA National Machine Tool Builders Association 



4 



CAM STANDARDS 



5 



1. Designation : ANSI X3. 37-1974 

2. Title : Automatically Programmed Tool (APT) 

3. Maintenance Authority : ANSI X3J7 and IS0/TC97/SC9 

4. Scope : Programming language used for Numerical Control (N/C) machine tools in 

discrete part manufacturing and tooling manufacturing, for surface definition, 
and as a subset of graphics and process planning programs for all of the above. 

5. Relationship to Other Standards : 

ARELEM - 1971 (subset) 

ARLM1 - 1975 (subset) 

SSX5 - 1975 (extension) 

CASPA - 1975 (pre-subset) 

ADAPT - (subset) 

UNIAPT - (Comparable except for the size of computer and mode of operation) 

ISO/DIS 3592 - 1975 (Pseudo-subset) the ISO CL DATA standard derived from APT. 

6. Competitive Standards : SPLIT/ACTION/COMPACT II Languages 

7. Standardization Status : In 1963, the Business Equipment Manufacturer's Association 

(BEMA) sponsored the formation of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) 
subcommittee X3J7 to create a standard for the APT language. The standard was 
submitted for approval in May, 1973. The first APT Language Standard was published 
by ANSI in June 1974. It is designated ANSI X3.37. This standard was revised in 
March 1975 and a draft (X3J7/55-80) is presently being circulated for comments. 
Final approval is expected by November 1976. The revised standard will be 
designated ANSI X3. 37-1 976. The major revision is the addition of the APT N/C post 
processor language in the standard. 

FIPS Task Group 19 is studying the suitability of this revised form of the APT 
Standard for use as a Federal Standard. A draft Federal Standard is expected by 
September 1977. 

8. Implementation Status : The APT Language is implemented on IBM 704, 709, 7090, 

360, 370, UNIVAC 1108. General Electric's international computer service network. 
APT is also fully or partially implemented on Fujitsu, Control Data Corporation, 
Siemens, and English Electric Computers. 

9. Known Manufacturing Uses : Approximately 20% of the parts made on N/C tools are 

programmed in APT. 

10. Known Sources of Information : 

Computer and Business Equipment Manufacturers Association (CBEMA) 

Secretariat of ANSI X3 
1828 L Street, NW 
Washington, D.C. 20036 

CAM-I, Inc. (Computer Aided Manufacturing-International , Inc.) 

611 Ryan Plaza Drive, Suite 1107 
Arlington, Texas 76012 



7 



11. Probable Sources of Information: 



IBM (International Business Machines) Corp. 

Data Processing Division 
1133 Westchester Avenue 
White Plains, New York 10604 

12. Bib! iography : 

ANSI X3.37 - 1974 

IBM SYSTEM/370 APT-BP Numerical Control Processor General Information Manual 

IBM SYSTEM/370 APT-IC & APT-AC Numerical Control Processor General Information Manual 

13. Comments : APT is the first of the N/C Languages, provides the most sophisticated 
capabilities, and is presently the most widely used, with about 20% of all N/C 
machined parts being programmed in APT. Development work includes a geometric 
modeling project for processing a wide variety of engineering shapes, an improved 
Arithmetic Element, and a sculptured surfaces project to extend the geometric 
capability of APT to unconventional analytical as well as non-analytical shapes. 

Developmental work is primarily carried out by CAM-I, Inc., which has taken over 
the work of the APT Long Range Program (ALRP) formerly at the Illinois Institute 
of Technology Researcn Institute (IITRI). 

Major problems still remain with post processor and controller source code 
incompatibilities that make it impossible to transfer either Cutter Location (CL) file 
tapes or machine tapes from one machine tool or facility to another without at least 
some modifications. 



8 



1 . 



Designation : 



N.A. 



2. Title : COMPACT II/ACTION/SPLIT ( COMp uter Program for Automatically Controlling 

Tools II/ACTION/Sundstrand processing language internally Translated) 

3. Maintenance Authority : ANSI X3J5, Manufacturing Data Systems Inc. (MDSI) 

4. Scope : Programming Language for describing operations for numerically controlled 

machines . 

5. Relationship to Other Standards : N.A. 

6. Competitive Standards : APT is the main competitive language; there are approximately 

40 other NC programming languages. 

7. Standardization Status : Initial proposal for a standard was reviewed by CBEMA 

SPARC committee June 17, 1975. This committee recorrmended that a study group be 
formed and the X3/SPARC Study Group held its first meeting September 30, 1975. 

As a result the COMPACT II/ACTION/SPLIT Standard proposal was modified and for- 
warded to X3 with the recommendation that an X3J* standards comnittee be formed 

in order to produce a standard within 12 to 24 months. X3J5 held its first meeting 
in March, 1976. 

8. Implementation Status : 

SPLIT has be implemented on the DEC PDP 11/20 and the IBM 360/30. 

ACTION has been implemented on the DEC PDP 11, DEC PDP 10, IBM 360, IBM 370. 

COMPACT II is available only in the remote time-sharing mode on two world-wide 
networks maintained by Manufacturing Data Systems Inc. (MDSI) 

9. Known Manufacturing Uses : A language used in programming of Numerical Control 

(N/C) machine tools. At present there are 1400 users of the COMPACT II/ACTION/SPLIT 
family of languages representing over 6000 N/C machine tools. This results in 
about 20 l of the machine parts made on all N/C tools are programmed in this 

family of languages. 

10. Known Sources of Information : 

Robert F. Guise, Jr. 

Director - New Product Planning 
Manufacturing Data Systems Inc. (MDSI) 

320 N. Main St. 

Ann Arbor, Michigan 48104 

11. Probable Sources of Information: 



Mr. Harold Baeverstad 
Vice President Manufacturing 

Sundstrand Machine Tool Division of the Sundstrand Corp. 
Newburg Road 

Belvidere, Illinois 61108 

Mr. Richard A. Stitt 
President 
NCCS-W0RD, Inc. 

23500 Merchantile Blvd. 

Cleveland, Ohio 44122 



9 



12. Bib! iography : 



MDSI COMPACT II Programming Manual, March, 1973 

Sundstrand Machine Tool OM 3 Omnimill SPLIT Programmers Manual 

TS 60030 SPLIT Vocabulary Manual 

ACTION Programming Manual for Mill and Drill 

ACTION Central , Description of the System 

ACTION N/C Time Sharing 

5-Axis Action 5A:001 

13. Comments : SPLIT is the parent language of a group of languages comprising SPLIT, 
ACTION, and COMPACT II in a father/son/grandson relationship. The languages are 
very similar, but the processors are quite different. 

It was decided in developing the standard that a standard CL (Cutter Location) 

Data output would be optional since this family of languages does not necessarily 
generate an intermediate data output medium. 

Approximately 30% to 50% of all N/C machine tools are programmed by computer 
assist. Of this number approximately 30% to 40% are programmed by COMPACT I I /ACTION/ 
SPLIT family of languages. This high use is mainly a result of the efficiency 
of programming 2 axis machines (lathes, which account for 40% of the N/C tools) 
and the ease of programming simple parts as compared to the greater programming 
effort required with the more sophisticated APT language. 

C0NAPT is a member of this family, not the APT family. 



10 



1 . 



Designation : IPAD 



2. Title : Integrated Program for Aerospace-Vehicle Design 

3. Maintenance Authority : 

Boeing Commercial Aircraft Co. 

P.0. Box 3707 

Seattle, Washington 98124 



NASA Langley Research Center 
Hampton, Virginia 

4. Scope : IPAD is not a standard by the common definition. It is an integrated 

software system to computerize, insofar as possible, company-wide design-information 
processing. IPAD will be composed of 1) executive software that will control 
user-directed processes through interactive interfaces with a large number of 
terminals in simultaneous use by engineering and management personnel, 2) a large 
number of utility software packages for information manipulation and display 
functions, and 3) data management software to store, track, and retrieve large 
quantities of data in multiple storage devices. 

IPAD is scheduled to be released by NASA to become public domain under NASA's 

For Early Domestic Dissemination (FEDD) policy. If it is widely used by industry 

IPAD may set de facto standards for data base formats and for the man/machine interfaces. 



5. Relationship to Other Standards : N/A 



6. Competitive Standards : N/A 

7. Standardization Status : N/A 

8. Implementation Status : IPAD is now being implemented. It will be released in three 

stages on two different host computer systems. 



Release 1 
" 1 

" 2 

" 2 

" 3 

" 3 



Host 1 
" 2 
" 1 
" 2 
" 1 
" 2 



June 1978 
Dec 1978 
May 1979 
Nov 1979 
June 1980 
Dec 1980 



9. Known Manufacturing Uses : IPAD will be used in aerospace design to provide 

executive control, data management, and display utilities for engineering and 
management programs. 

10. Known Sources of Information : 

Robert Fulton, or Susan Voigt 
NASA Langley Research Center 
Hampton, Virginia 23665 
804/827-2887, x3401 

R. E. Miller, Jr. 

IPAD Program Manager 

Boeing Commercial Airplane Co. 

P.0. Box 3707 

Seattle, Washington 98124 
206/237-8223 

11. Probable Sources of Information: N/A 



11 



12. Bib! iography : 



Feasibility Study on an Integrated Program for Aerospace-Vehicle Design (IPAD), 

The Boeing Company, Contract NASI -11 441, 1973 

Feasibility Study on an integrated Program for Aerosapce-Vehicle Design (IPAD), 
General Dynamics/Convair , Contract NASI -11 431, 1973, NASA CR 132401-06. 

IPAD Prospectus, NASA Langley Research Center, February 10, 1975. 

NASA Request for Proposal 1-15-4934 Development of Integrated Programs for Aerospace- 
Vehicle Design (IPAD) May 16, 1975. 

Boeing Technical Plan-Review D6-IPAD 70002-PS, May 24, 1976. 

13. Comments : The Air Force has an memorandum of agreement with NASA to insure the 
compatabil ity of the IPAD and CAM systems. 



12 



1 . 



Designation : Institute for Printed Circuits Standard IPC-D-350A 



2. Ti tl e : End Product Description in Numeric Form for Printed Wiring Products 

3. Maintenance Authority : 

Institute for Printed Circuits 
1717 Howard St. 

Evanston, Illinois 60202 

4. Scope : Describes record formats for defining end-product description data in 

digital form. This digital data, when recorded on punched cards or magnetic tape, 
contains sufficient information for tooling, manufacturing, and continuity testing 
of printed wiring products. These formats may be used for transmitting information 
between the designer and the manufacturing facility when the design has been formed by 
a computer-aided processes. These formats are also useful when the manufacturing 
process includes numerically-controlled machines. The data record is not in any parti- 
cular machine language and can be used for both manual and computer interpretation. 

5. Relationship to Other Standards : IPC-D-350A contains the following standards: 

Institute of Printed Circuits: 

IPC-T-50 Terms and Definitions 

IPC-D-310 Suggested Guidelines for Artwork Generation and Measurement Techniques 
for Printed Circuits 

IPC-D-390 Guidelines for Design Layout and Artwork Generation on Computer 
Automated Equipment for Printed Wiring 

Department of Defense 

MIL-STD-429 Printed-Wiring and Printed-Circuit Terms and Definitions 

American National Standards Institute 

ANSI X3.22 Recorded Magnetic Tape for Information Interchange 
ANSI X3.26 Hollerith Punched Card Code 

American Society for Testing and Materials 
E380-74 Metric Practice Guide 

6. Competitive Standards : None 

7. Standardization Status : IPC-D-350 released August, 1972; IPC-D-350A revised and 

enhanced, released September, 1975. 

The ANSI Y14.26.2 Subcommittee is presently considering revising IPC-D-350A and 
reissuing it as a joint ANSI / 1 PC standard under the designation, ANSI Y14.26.2/ 
IPC-D-350B. This revision will not make any change in the data formats; the only 
changes will be in the text of the descriptive narrative. Expected release data 
of this new standard is September, 1976. 

8. Implementation Status : Computer-Vision, Inc. has implemented a translator for the 

standard to sell with their printed wiring manufacturing equipment. 

Bendix and Sandia are negotiating with Applicon for a similar translator. 

9. Known Manufacturing Uses : The National Security Agency (NSA) has made IPC-D-350A 

a requirement for all suppliers of printed circuits and printed circuit equipment. 



13 



10 . 



Known Sources of Information: 



Timothy Ristine, Chairman of ANSI Y14. 26-2/1 PC-D-350B 
Multiwire-New England 
491 Amherst St. 

Nashua, N.H. 03060 
603/889-0083 

1 1 . Probable Sources of Information : N/A 

12. Bib! iography : N/A 

13. Comments: 



14 



1 . 



Designation : ANSI Y14.26.1 



2. Title : Digital representation of Physical Object Shapes 

3. Maintenance Authority : 

American National Standards 

Y14 Committee on Engineering Drawing and Related Documentation 
Subcommittee Y26 on Computer Aided Preparation of Product Definition Data 

4. Scope : To establish a standard method of describing physical object shapes 

to facilitate communication of physical descriptions among computer users. 

5. Relationship to Other Standards : Not yet defined. However, the proposed Y14.26.1 
standard for a computer-readable format undoubtedly must subsume such currently 
used standards as MIL-D-1000, Military Specification for Engineering Drawings, and 
MIL-D-100A, Military Specifications for Engineering Drawing Practices. 

In addition, Y14.26.1 must be compatible with other ANSI Y14, Y10, Y32, and Z32 
standards on drafting practices, graphical symbols and letter symbols. 

6. Competitive Standards : None 

7. Standardization Status : A technical report defining the geometrical foundations 

of Y14.26.1 was released in June, 1976. A draft of the Y14.26.1 standard will be 
submitted to the committee for a vote by Spring 1977 and will be released some 
months thereafter. 

8. Implementation Status : N/A 

9. Known Manufacturing Uses : Computer aided preparation of engineering drawings. 

10. Known Sources of Information : 

S. Hori 

Leader of Y14.26.1 and 2 
McDonnell Douglas Corp. 

Dept. H21 3 , Bldg. 107, Rm. 227 
P.0. Box 516 
St. Louis, MO 63166 
314/232-7286 

11. Probable Sources of Information : N/A 

12. Bib! iography : 

Informational Report on Digital Representation of Physical Object Shapes, American 
National Technical Report ANSI Y14.26, 1 June, 1976 
Design/Manufacturing Interface, Aerospace Industries Association Report on 
Project MC 75.4, October, 1975. 

13. Comments : This work does not yet represent a formal standard and has had only 
limited testing. The concepts promise to be extremely useful in constructing and 
transferring data on geometric objects. 



15 



COMPUTER SYSTEMS STANDARDS 



17 



1. Designation : EIA RS-232-C, August 1969 

2. Title: Interface Between Data Terminal Equipment and Data Communication Equipment 

Employing Serial Binary Data Interchange, August 1969 

3. Maintenance Authority : Electronic Industries Association, Subcommittee TR-30.2 

4. Scope: Hardware Standard. "This standard is applicable to the interconnection of 

data terminal equipment (DTE) and data communication equipment (DCE) employing serial 
binary data interchange." It defines: (1) electrical signal characteristics, 

(2) interface mechanical characteristics, (3) functional description of interchange 
circuits, (4) standard interfaces for selected communication system configurations. 

5. Relationship to Other Standards : 

EIA RS- 334 (ANSI X3. 24-1968) Signal quality for EIA 232-C interface 

EIA RS-422 and EIA RS-423, April 1975 (revised electrical signal characteristics) 

EIA SP-1194, October 1975 (revised functional description) 

6. Competitive Standards : CCITT V.24 (functional) and V. 28 or V . 31 for electrical 

characteristics. CCITT X . 21 corresponding interface for public data (in contrast 
to public telephone) networks. 

7. Standardization Status : RS-232, May 1960; RS-232-A, October 1963; RS-232-B, 

October 1965. RS-232-C is expected to be gradually (ten years) replaced by EIA 

SP-1194A (see writeup immediately below). 

8. Implementation Status : Commerically, RS-232-C has enjoyed universal acceptance as 

the data terminal -to-modem de facto interface. Although MIL STD 188C prescribes 
232-C functions, it employs different (lower voltage and lower impedance) electrical 
characteristics , primarily for security and privacy purposes. 

9. Known Manufacturing Uses : RS-232-C is primarily a communcations (serial) interface 

speci fication. 

10. Known Sources of Information : Mr. A. M. Wilson, Electronic Industries Association, 

2001 Eye Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20006, (202) 659-2200. 

11. Probable Sources of Information : Mr. George E. Clark, National Bureau of Standards, 
Building 225, Room B210, Washington, D.C. 20234, (301) 921-3723. 

12. Bib! iography : EIA RS-232-C, August 1969 

13. Comments : Equipment conforming to RS-232-C will gradually be replaced with that 
conforming to RS-422 and 423 (employing integrated circuit components) that will 
also operate over much greater distances (up to 400 ft.) and at much higher 

speeds (up to 10 mega bits/sec.). (Note that 232-C is constrained to 20 kilobits/sec 
and 50 ft. ) 



18 



1 . 



Designation : EIA SP-1194A/Proposed Federal Standard 1031/Proposed FIPS PUB 



2. Title : Functional and Mechanical Interface Between Data Terminal Equipment and 

Data Communication Equipment 

3. Maintenance Authority : Electronic Industries Association Subcommittee TR-30.2. 1 

4. Scope: SP-1194A, together with EIA RS-422 and RS-423, is intended to supersede 

EIA RS-232-C. 

5. Relationship to Other Standards : SP-1194 is presently being revised and may result 

in two or more standards specifying different interface functional and mechanical 
characteristics. 

6. Competitive Standards : 

7. Standardization Status : EIA SP-1194A is presently (September 1976) under EIA ballot. 

This Standard, together with EIA Standard RS-423, is intended to gradually replace 
EIA Standard RS-232-C as the specification for the nonengineered interface between 
data terminal equipment (DTE) and data communication equipment (DCE) employing 
serial binary data interchange at data signaling rates up to 60,000 bits per second. 
With a few additional provisions for interoperabil ity, equipment conforming to this 
standard can interoperate with equipment designed to RS-232-C. This standard is 
intended primarily for data applications using analog telecommunications networks. 

8. Implementation Status : None 

9. Known Manufacturing Uses : 

10. Known Sources of Information: Mr. A. M. Wilson, Electronic Industries Association, 

(202) 659-2200 

11. Probable Sources of Information : Mr. George E. Clark, NBS, (301) 921-3723 

12. Bib! iography : EIA SP-1194A 

13. Comments : A notice of an earlier version (EIA SP-1194) of this standard as a proposed 
Federal Standard (1031) and a proposed FIPS PUB appeared in the Federal Register on 
December 5, 1975, page 56938. 



^As a Federal Standard, it would be maintained by the National Communications System 
(NCS-TS), Washington, D.C. 20305. 



19 



1. Designation : ANSI X3. 24-1968 (EIA RS-334, March 1967) 

2. Title : Signal Quality at Interface Between Data Processing Terminal Equipment 

and Synchronous Data Communication Equipment for Serial Data Transmission 

3. Maintenance Authority : Electronic Industries Association Subcommittee TR-30.1 

4. Scope : "This standard is applicable to the exchange of serial binary data signals 

and timing signals across the interface between data processing terminal equipment 
and synchronous data communication equipment, as defined in EIA Standard RS-232-C. 

The data communication equipment is considered to be synchronous if the timing signal 
circuits are at the transmitting terminal or the receiving terminal, or both . . . 
This standard does not describe any requirements for error performance, either for a 
complete system or any system components." 

5. Relationship to Other Standards : EIA RS-232-C (the interface) 

6. Competitive Standards : None 

7. Standardization Status : First approved by EIA in March 1967. Approved as 

an ANSI Standard on September 27, 1968. Revision of this standard according 
to the newly approved electrical characteristics is awaiting final EIA actions 
on recent (July 1976) revisions of EIA Standards RS-422 and 423. 

8. Implementation Status: Most equipment conforming to RS-232-C exceeds the provisons 

of X3.24. 

9. Known Manufacturing Uses : Used in conjunction with RS-232-C for specifying the 

DTE/DCE communications interface. 

10. Known Sources of Information : Mr. A. M. Wilson, Electronic Industries Association, 
2001 Eye Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20006, (202) 659-2200 

11. Probable Sources of Information : Mr. George E. Clark, National Bureau of Standards, 

Building, 225, Room B210, Washington, D.C. 20234, (301) 921-3723 

12. Bibliography : ANSI X3. 24-1968 (EIA RS-334, March 1967) 

13. Comments : Conformance to X3.24 assures that the signal amplitude and timing 
relationships will be compatible for equipment furnished by different suppliers -- 
and providing that the RS-232-C functions are consistently implemented, this 
conformance insures that equipment will interoperate. 



20 



1 . 



Designation : EIA RS-408 



2. Title : Interface Between Numerical Control Equipment and Data Terminal Equipment 

Employing Parallel Binary Data Interchange 

3. Maintenance Authority : EIA EI-31 

4. Scope : Hardware Standard. This standard applies to the interconnection of data 

terminal equipment and numerical control equipment at the tape reader interface. 

It provides electrical signal characteristics, interface mechanical characteristics, 
and a functional description of the interface. 

5. Relationship to Other Standards : This standard is for parallel-by-bit, serial-by-byte 

data, such as that generated by a perforated tape reader. 

6. Competitive Standards : IEEE Standard 488-1975 

7. Standardization Status : Approved by EIA in March 1973 

8. Implementation Status : Widely implemented in numerical control equipment. 

9. Known Manufacturing Uses : Used in machines employing numerical control. 

10. Known Sources of Information: Mr. A. M. Wilson, EIA, (202) 659-2200; Dr. John Evans, 
NBS, (301) 921-2381. 

11. Probable Sources of Information : NMTBA 

12. Bib! iography : EIA RS-408, March 1973 

13. Comments : The data terminal equipment (DTE) typically includes a serial -to-parallel 
converter. This standard is employed on the parallel -by-bit side of the DTE. 

Other standards, such as EIA RS-232-C, apply at the serial-by-bit side of the DTE. 



21 



1. Designation : IEEE Standard 488-1975 

2. Title : IEEE Standard Digital Interface for Programmable Instrumentation 

3. Maintenance Authority : IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Group 

4. Scope : Hardware Standard. This standard applies to interface systems used to 

interconnect both programmable and non-programmable (digital) electronic measuring 
apparatus with other apparatus and accessories necessary to assemble instrumentation 
systems. It is a parallel-by-bit, serial -by-byte standard. 

5. Relationship to Other Standards : The character coding is based upon ISO 646-1973, 

similar to ASCII, FIPS PUB 1, ANSI X3. 4-1968. 

6. Competitive Standard s: EIA RS-408, IEEE Standard 583-1975 (CAMAC) 

7. Standardization Status : Approved by the IEEE Standards Board on December 19, 1974. 

Development of this standard was coordinated with IEC/TC66/WG3. It may become an 
IEC standard. 

8. Imp l ementation Status : Implemented in electronic instruments, such as those made 

by the Hewlett-Packard Co. 

9. Known Manufacturing Uses : 

10. Known Sources of Information : Mr. Robert A. Soderman, General Radio Co., (617) 396-4400 
x608; Mr. Donald C. Loughry, Hewlett-Packard Co., (408) 735-1550; Mr. Robert G. Fulks, 
Omnicomp, 71 N. 12th Place, Phoenix, (602) 997-5456. 

11. Probable Sources of Information : IEEE 

12. Bib! iography : IEEE Standard 488-1975 

13. Comments : Up to 15 devices may be interconnected on one "party-line" configuration. 

Cable length is up to 20 meters. Maximum data rate on any signal line is one megabit 
per second. This standard is optimized for devices in close proximity (up to 20 
meters) . 



22 



1 . 



Designation : IEEE Standard 583-1975 



2. Title : IEEE Standard Modular Instrumentation and Digital Interface Systems (CAMAC) 1 

3. Maintenance Authority : IEEE Nuclear Instruments and Detectors Committee 

4. Scope : Hardware Standard. "This standard is intended to serve as a basis for 

a range of modular instrumentation capable of interfacing transducers and other 
devices to digital controllers for data and control. The standard fully specifies 

a data bus by means of which instruments and other functional modules can communicate 
with each other, with peripherals, with computers, and with other external controllers. 
Data may be transferred either bit-serial or byte-serial." 

5. Relationship to Other Standards : Identical in many respects to IEC 482 and IEC 516. 

6. Competitive Standards : EIA RS-408, IEEE Standard 488, EIA RS-232-C 

7. Standardization Status : Approved by the IEEE Standards Board on February 27, 1975. 

8. Implementation Status : Increasingly implemented in laboratory digital instrumentation 

equipment, especially that related to nuclear physics and testing. 

9. Known Manufacturing Uses : Aluminum Furnace Control (ALCOA), Steel Process Control 

(Inland Steel Co.), Diesel Locomotive Testing (GM), Large Power Semiconductor Testing 
(GE), Telescope Control and Data Gathering (Kitt Peak) 

10. Known Sources of Information : Mr. Dale W. Zobrist, Eldec Corporation, (206) 743-1313; 

Mr. Louis Costrell , NBS, (301 ) 921-2518; Mr. Lowell A. Klaisner, Kinetic Systems 
Corporation, (815) 838-0005 

11. Probable Sources of Information : IEEE, ERDA, Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, 

Lawrence Radiation Lab, Berkeley, California. 

12. Bibliography : IEEE Standard 583-1975; "CAMAC, A Modular Standard," IEEE Spectrum , 

April 1976, pp. 50-55. 

13. Comments : This standard was developed by the ES0NE Committee of European Laboratories 
and the NIM Committee of ERDA. Data may be transferred byte-serial for high speeds 
and bit-serial for long distances. 



1 



Computer Automated Measurement and Control 



23 



1 . 



Designation : FIPS PUB 22-1 ( 1 976 ) /ANSI X3. 1-1976 

2. Title : Synchronous Signaling Rates Between Data Terminal and Data Communication 

Equipment 

3. Maintenance Authority : ANSI X3S36 

4. Scope: This standard provides a group of specific signaling rates for synchronous 

serial or parallel binary data transmission. These rates exist on the received 
data and transmitted data circuits of the interface between data terminal equipment 
and data communications equipment which operate over nominal 4kHz voice bandwidth 
channels. 

5. Relationship to Other Standards : FIPS PUB 37/ANSI X3 .36-1 97 5 (wide band synchronous 

signaling rates); EIA RS-334 is referenced by ANSI X3.1 for tolerances on the 
prescribed rates. 

6. Competitive Standards : None 

7. Standardization Status : First approved by ANSI in 1962 and revised slightly in 

1966, 1969, and 1976. The most recent revision (1976) eliminated the "interim-speed 
of 2000 bits/second." 

8. Implementation Status : FIPS PUB 22-1 differs from X3.1 only in that it specifies 

the tolerance as follows: "The deviation from any specified rate shall not exceed 

0.01 percent." 

9. Known Manufacturing Uses : Applicable to data terminal and data processing equipment 

employed with synchronous data communication designed to operate on binary encoded 
information over voice grade lines. 

10. Known Sources of Information : Mr. William F. Hanrahan, Secretary, ANSI X3, 

(202) 466-2288; H. J. Crowley, Chairman X3S36, (315) 330-2355 

11. Probable Sources of Information : Mr. George E. Clark, NBS, (301) 921-3723 

12. Bibliography : FIPS PUB 22-1 (1976)/ANSI X3. 1-1976 

13. Comments: None 



24 



1. Designation : FIPS PUB 16-1971/ANSI X3. 15-1966 

2. Title : Bit Sequencing of ASCII in Serial -by-Bit Data Transmission 

3. Maintenance Authority : NBS/ANSI X3S33 

4. Scope : This standard specifies the bit sequencing of ASCII (ANSI X3. 4-1968) 

for serial-by-bit, serial -by-character data transmission. It applies at the 
interface between data processing terminal equipment and data communications 
equipment. 

5. Relationship to Other Standards : This is an implementation standard for CCITT 

Recommendation V. 4-1972 and for ASCII (FIPS PUB 1, ANSI X3. 4-1968) and the character 
structure standards for serial-by-bit data (FIPS PUB 17, ANSI X3. 16-1966). EIA 
RS-232-C uses this standard. 

6. Competitive Standards : All bit-oriented, code-independent data transmission 

standards, such as HDLC, SDLC, ADCCP, BDLC, etc; parallel -by-bit standards, such as 
FIPS PUB 18, ANSI X3. 25-1968. 

7. Standardization Status: Approved as an ANSI standard on August 19, 1966. FIPS 

PUB 16 adopted RS-232-C and ASCII (FIPS PUB 1, ANSI X3. 4-1968). 

8. Implementation Status: Widely implemented in terminal equipment conforming to 

EIA standard RS-232-C and ASCII (FIPS PUB 1, ANSI X3. 4-1968). 

9. Known Manufacturing Uses : Virtually all ASCII data transmitted in serial-by-bit, 

serial -by-character form, conforms to the conventions of this standard. 

10. Known Sources of Information: Mr. John L. Little, NBS, (301) 921-3723; 

Mr. William F. Hanrahan, Secretary of ANSI X3, (202) 466-2288. 

11. Probable Sources of Information : Teletype Corporation 

12. Bibliography : FIPS PUB 16-1971, ANSI X3. 15-1966. CCITT "Green Book," Vol . VIII, 

Recommendation V.4 on pp. 61-62, 1973. 

13. Comments : This standard specifies that the ASCII bits for each character be transmitted 
low-order bit (bl) first. Character-oriented data, such as decimal digits, are 
usually transmitted high-order character first, and are stored in computer memories 
with the high-order characters at the high order end of words or blocks. Hence, 

each character transmitted according to this standard may be subjected to bit inversion 
for transmission and further bit inversion for re-assembly of a computer-oriented 
character stream or data structure. For this reason, IBM and others opposed this 
standard, which was a highly controversial proposal until it was approved in 1966. 



25 



1. Designation : FIPS PUB 17-1971/ANSI X3. 16-1966 

2. Title: Character Structure and Character Parity Sense for Serial -by-Bit Data 

Communication in ASCII (FIPS PUB 1/ANSI X3. 4-1968) 

3. Maintenance Authority : NBS/ANSI X3S33 

4. Scope : Hardware Standard. This standard specifies the character structure and 

sense of character parity for serial-by-bit, serial -by-character synchronous and 
asynchronous data communication in ASCII (FIPS PUB 1, ANSI X3. 4-1968). This standard 
applies to general information interchange at the interface between data processing 
terminal equipment and the data communication equipment. 

5. Relationship to Other Standards : This standard is an implementation of the 7-bit 

code of ASCII (FIPS PUB 1/ANSI X3. 4-1968). It is used at interfaces such as EIA 
RS-232-C. The companion standard FIPS PUB 18/ANSI X3. 25-1968 is for character 
structures using parallel -by-bi t data communication. Subsets, such as EIA RS-358, 
can use the structure of this standard. 

6. Competitive Standards : Proprietary structures for communicating non-ASCII codes, 

such as 6-bit Teletypesetter or 8-bit EBCDIC 

7. Standardization Status : The ANSI standard X3.16 was approved on August 19, 1966; 

FIPS PUB 17, adopting in its entirety that ANSI standard, was approved on 
October 1 , 1971 . 

8. Implementation Status : Widely implemented in communication systems and ADP terminal 

devices. 

9. Known Manufacturing Uses : 

10. Known Sources of Information : Mr. John L. Little, NBS, (301) 921-3723; 

Mr. George E. Clark, NBS, (301) 921-3723. 

11. Probable Sources of Information : Teletype Corporation 

12. Bibliography : FIPS PUB 17-1971/ANSI X3. 16-1966 

13. Comments : This standard specifies odd parity for synchronous data communication 
and even parity for asynchronous data communication. It does not specify the bit 
sequence, which is given in FIPS PUB 16/ANSI X3. 15-1966. 



26 



1 . 



Designation : FIPS PUB 18-1971/ANSI X3. 25-1968 



2. Title: Character Structure and Character Parity Sense for Parallel -by-Bit Data 

Communication in ASCII (FIPS PUB 1/ANSI X3. 4-1968)' 

3. Maintenance Authority : NBS/ANSI X3S33 

4. Scope : Hardware Standard. This standard specifies the character structure and 

sense of character parity for parallel -by-bi t , serial-by-character, data communication 
in ASCII (FIPS PUB 1/ANSI X3. 4-1968). This standard applies to general information 
interchange at the interface between data processing terminal equipment and data 
communication equipment. 

5. Relationship to Other Standa r ds : This standard is an implementation of the 7-bit 

code for ASCII (FIPS PUB 1/ANSI X3. 4-1968). It is used at parallel-by-bit interfaces, 

such as EIA RS-408. The companion standard FIPS PUB 17/ANSI X3. 16-1966 is for 

character structures using serial-by-bit data communication. Subsets, such as 

EIA RS-358 can use the structure of this standard. 

6. Competitive Standards : Proprietary incompatible structures for communicating non- 

ASCII codes, such as 8-bit EBCDIC. 

7. Standardization Status : The ANSI standard X3.25 was approved on September 27, 1968; 

FIPS PUB 18, adopting in its entirety that ANSI standard, was approved on 

October 1 , 1971 . 

8. Implementation Status : Implemented in most paral lei -by-bit data communication devices. 

9. Known Manufacturing Uses : 

10. Known Sources of Information: Mr. George E. Clark, NBS, (301) 921-3723; 

Mr. John L. Little, NBS, (301) 921-3723. 

11 . Probable Sources of Information : 

12. Bibliography : FIPS PUB 18-1971, ANSI X3. 25-1968 

13. Comments : This standard specifies an 8-bit character structure including the 7 bits 
of ASCII and an odd parity bit where the character timing is not separately 
signaled. Where the character timing is on a separate timing channel, the parity 
sense is even. 



27 



1. Designation : FIPS PUB 37 ( 1 97 5 ) / FED- STD- 1 001/ANSI X3. 36-1975 

2. Title : Synchronous High Speed Data Signaling Rates Between Data Terminal Equipment 

and Data Communication Equipment 

3. Maintenance Authority : ANSI X3S36 

4. Scope : "This standard provides a group of specific signaling rates for synchronous 

high speed serial data transfer. These rates exist on the received data and the 
transmitted data circuits of the interface between data terminal equipment and data 
communication equipment that operate over high speed channels." 

5. Relationship to Other Standards : FIPS PUB 22-1 (1976)/ ANS I X3.1-1976 

6. Competitive Standards : None 

7. Standardization Status : The Federal standard (FED-STD-1001 ) adopts the ANSI standard 

(X3.36) with two exceptions, as follows: "a. The note alluding to certain unspecified 
coding restrictions on the data stream of users operating at 1544 kbits/sec is not 
applicable," and "b. A signaling rate of 64 kbit/sec may also be utilized by Federal 
agencies having requirements to interface directly with point-to-point transmission 
facilities of foreign communication carriers." 

8. Implementation Status : 

9. Known Manufacturing Uses : None 

10. Known Sources of Information: Mr. William F. Hanrahan, Secretary, ANSI X3, 

(202) 466-2288; H. J. Crowley, Chairman X3S36, (315) 330-2355 

11. Probable Sources of Information : Mr. George E. Clark, NBS, (301) 921-3723 

12. Bibliography : FIPS PUB 37 ( 1 975 )/ FED-STD- 1 001 /ANSI X3. 36-1975 

13. Comments : ATT has only recently applied for a tariff (#269) proposing to offer 
the rates prescribed by this standard as part of the Dataphone Switched Digital 
Service (DSDS). This tariff is based on 56 kbit/sec subscriber services. This 
and other speeds prescribed by X3.36 are not presently in wide usage. 



28 



1. Designation : FED-STD-1020/EIA RS-422 (1975) 

2. Title : Electrical Characteristics of Balanced Voltage Digital Interface Circuits 

3. Maintenance Authority : Electronic Industries Association Committee TR-30.1 

4. Scope : This standard specifies the electrical characteristics of the balanced 

voltage digital interface circuit, normally implemented in integrated circuit 
technology, that may be employed for the interchange of serial binary signals 
between data terminal and data communication equipment. 

5. Relationship to Other Standards : FED-STD-1 030/EIA RS-423 (Unbalanced Voltage 

Digital Interface Circuits); EIA RS-232-C (only the electrical characteristics). 

6. Competitive Standards : None 

7. Standardization Status : RS-422 (and also RS-423) may be employed as an evolutiontary 

replacement for the electrical characteristics of RS-232-C. 

8. Implementation Status : Not widely implemented at present. 

9. Known Manufacturing Uses : Although primarily designed for communication interface 

applications, the integrated circuit components implementing RS-422 can be employed 
in many other data interchange environments. 

10. Known Sources of Information: Mr. A. M. Wilson, Electronic Industries Association, 

(202) 659-2200 

11. Probable Sources of Information : Mr. George E. Clark, NBS, (301) 921-3723 

12. Bibliography : FED-STD-1 020/EIA RS-422 (1975) 

13. Comments: None 



29 



1 . 



Designation : FED-STD-1 030/EIA RS-423 (1975) 

2. Title : Electrical Characteristics of Unbalanced Voltage Digital Interface Circuits 

3. Maintenance Authority : Electronic Industries Association Committee TR-30.1 

4. Scope : This standard specifies the electrical characteristics of the unbalanced 

voltage digital interface circuit, normally implemented in integrated circuit 
technology, that may be employed for the interchange of serial binary signals between 
Data Terminal Equipment (DTE) and Data Communications Equipment (DCE). 

5. Relationship to Other Standards : FED-STD-1 020/EIA RS-422 (Balanced Voltage Digital 

Interface Circuits); EIA RS-232-C (only the electrical characteristics) 

6. Competitive Standards : None 

7. Standardization Status : RS-423 (and also RS-422) may be employed as an evolutionary 

replacement for the electrical characteristics of RS-232-C. 

8. Implementation Status : Not widely implemented at present. 

9. Known Manufacturing Uses : Although primarily designed for communication interface 

applications, the integrated circuit components implementing RS-423 can be employed 
in many other data interchange environments. 

10. Known Sources of Information: Mr. A. M. Wilson, Electronic Industries Association, 

(202) 659-2200 

11. Probable Sources of Information : Mr. George E. Clark, NBS, (301) 921-3723 

12. Bibliography : FED-STD-1 030/EIA RS-423 (1975) 

13. Comments: None 



30 



1. Designation : C.C.I.T.T. Recommendation V. 28 



2. Title : Electrical Characteristics for Unbalanced Double-Current Interchange 

Circuits 

3. Maintenance Authority : C.C.I.T.T. 

4. Scope : Hardware Standard. "The electrical characteristics specified in this 

Recommendation apply generally to interchange circuits operating with data signalling 
rates below the limit of 20,000 bits per second." 

5. Relationship to Other Standards : C.C.I.T.T. Recommendation V.31 is for the lower 

speed circuits up to 75 bits per second. 

6. Competitive Standards : C.C.I.T.T. V. 28 is an alternative to the electrical 

characteristics of EIA RS-232-C. 

7. Standardization Status : Approved by the C.C.I.T.T. plenary session at Geneva, 

Switzerland in 1972. 

8. Implementation Status : Implemented primarily in Europe. 

9. Known Manufacturing Uses : 

10. Known Sources of Information : Mr. Ira W. Cotton, NBS, (301) 921-2601; 

Mr. George E. Clark, NBS, (301) 921-3723; Mr. Arthur Freeman, U.S. Dept, of State, 
(202) 632-1007 

11. Probable Sources of Information : Teletype Corporation 

12. Bib! iography : C.C.I.T.T. Recommendation V.28, "Green Book," Vol . VIII, Data 

Transmission, pp. 132-135. 

13. Comments : C.C.I.T.T. is the French abbreviation for International Consultative 
Committee on Telegraph and Telephone. In most nations of the world (but not in the 
U.S.), its recommendations are given the force of law. The U.S. is represented 

on the CCITT by the U.S. Department of State. By way of contrast, the U.S. is 
represented on ISO and IEC by ANSI. The CCITT is an organ of the International 
Telecommunications Union (ITU) which is reported to be the oldest international 
standardizing body in the world. The ITU is now an organ of the United Nations. 



31 



1. Designation : C.C.I.T.T. Recommendation V.31 

2. Title : Electrical Characteristics for Single-Current Interchange Circuits 

Controlled by Contact Closure 

3. Maintenance Authority : C.C.I.T.T. 

4. Scope: Hardware Standard. "In general, the electrical characteristics specified 

in this Recommendation apply to interchange circuits operating at data signalling 
rates up to 75 bits per second." 

5. Relationship to Other Standards : C.C.I.T.T. Recommendation V.28 is for higher speed 

circuits up to 20,000 bits per second. 

6. Competitive Standards : 

7. Standardization Status: Approved by the CCITT plenary session at Geneva, Switzerland, 

in 1972. 

8. Implementation Status : Implemented primarily in Europe. 

9. Known Manufacturing Uses : 

10. Known Sources of Information : Mr. Ira W. Cotton, NBS, (301) 921-2601; Mr. George E. Clark 

NBS, (301) 921-3723; Mr. Arthur Freeman, U.S. Department of State, (202) 632-1007 

11. Probable Sources of Information : Teletype Corporation 

12. Bib! iography : C.C.I.T.T. Recommendation V.31, "Green Book," Vol . VIII, Data 

Transmission, pp. 140-142 

13. Comments : C.C.I.T.T. is the French abbreviation for International Consultative 
Committee on Telegraph and Telephone. In most nations of the world (but not in 
the U.S.), its recommendations are given the force of law. The U.S. is represented 
on the CCITT by the U.S. Department of State. By way of contrast, the U.S. is 
represented on ISO and IEC by ANSI. The CCITT is an organ of the International 
Telecommunications Union (ITU) which is reported to be the oldest international 
standardizing body in the world. The ITU is now an organ of the United Nations. 



1. Designation: Fourth Draft Proposed Standard "ANSI X.21" (Document No. 

X3S37-75-54/4) 

2. Title : General Purpose Interface Between Data Terminal Equipment and Data Circuit 

Terminating Equipment for Synchronous Operation on Public Data Networks 

3. Maintenance Authority : ANSI Task Group X3S37 

4. Scope : This standard defines the interface characteristics, interface procedures 

and timing of events, signal formats, and failure detection and isolation for a 
general purpose interface between data terminal equipment (DTE) and data circuit 
terminating equipment (DCE) for synchronous operation on public data networks. 

5. Relationship to Other Standards : (1) Essentially the same as CCITT Recommendation 

X.21 . (2) An alternative to EIA Standards RS-232-C and RS-XYZ that are both intend- 

ed for DTE interconnections to analog network facilities. (3) A portion of CCITT 
Recommendation X.25 on packet switching. 

6. Competitive Standards : See 5. (2) above. 

7. Standardization Status : Fourth draft completed by X3S37 as a result of a letter 

ballot. This draft will probably be forwarded to X3. 

8. Implementation Status : None 

9. Known Manufacturing Uses : None 

10. Known Sources of Information: Mr. George E. Clark, Jr., NBS (301) 921-3723 and 

Mr. J. G. Griffis, DCA (703) 437-2247. 

11. Probable Sources of Information : Mr. S. M. Harris, Mitre Corporation (617) 271-3587; 

Mr. B. D. Wessler, Telenet Communications Corporation (202) 637-7925; and 

Mr. Vincent Dovydaitis, AFCS/LO (617) 861-4801. 

12. Bibl iography : None 

13. Comments : Telephone systems in the future will be based on digital transmission 
systems. A/D and D/A converters will be placed in the hardset. A 4000HZ 
audio bandwidth will be achieved by digitizing at an 8KHZ sampling rate with 7 
bits resolution. This means that each phone will use a 56 Kbit digital line. 

X.21 is the appropriate DTE/DCE protocol for such a transmission system. Limited 
implementation now; widespread implementation in the 1980's. 



33 



1. Designation : Draft Proposed Standard ANSI X3T92/064 

2. Title : Class B Device Level Interface (for minicomputer systems) 

3. Maintenance Authority : ANSI X3T92 

4. Scope : These specifications define an interconnection between a peripheral device 

and a controller in which: 

The data exchanged between interconnected defices is digital. 

The number of devices interconnected via the interface is limited to four. 
The total transmission path length of the interconnecting cables does not 
exceed 100 feet (30 meters). 

The data rate across the interface does not exceed the maximum rate 
designated for each device class. 

5. Relationship to Other Standards : None 

6. Competitive Standards : None 

7. Standardization Status : Draft proposed standard has not yet been completed by 

the Task Group to include electrical characteristics and device specifications. 

8. Implementation Status : Similar to PERTEC magnetic tape drive interface. 

9. Known Manufacturing Uses : None 

10. Known Sources of Information: Mr. George E. Clark, Jr., NBS (301) 921-3723 and 

Mr. J. M. Bakshi, NBS (301) 921-3723. 

11. Probable Sources of Information : Mr. Delbert Showmaker, GSA (202) 566-1180 and 

Mr. G. S. Robinson, Inforex, Inc. (617) 272-6470. 



12. Bibliography : 

13. Comments: 



34 



1 . 



Designation : Draft Proposed Standard ANSI X3T9/600, Revision 2 



2. Title : Working Paper for a Draft Proposed American National Standard for I/O 

Channel Interface 

3. Maintenance Authority : ANSI X3T9 

4. Scope : This American National Standard specifies functional, electrical, and 

mechanical characteristics of the interface between I/O control units and channels 
in general purpose computer systems. 

5. Relationship to Other Standards : None 

6. Competitive Standards : None 

7. Standardization Status : Draft proposed standard (revision 2) has been revised to 

reflect results of X3T9 letter ballot and has been forwarded to X3. 

8. Implementation Status : Implemented by Amdahl, Itel , and IBM central processors 

and in the I/O controllers built by STC, Telex, and other independent peripheral 
suppl iers. 

9. Known Manufacturing Uses : None 

10. Known Sources of Information: Mr. George E. Clark, Jr., NBS (301) 921-3723 and 

Mr. J. M. Bakshi, NBS (301) 921-3723. 

11. Probable Sources of Information : Mr. Delbert Showmaker, GSA (202) 566-1180 and 

Mr. Richard Guyette, IBM (914) 463-8153. 

12. Bib! iography : None 

13. Comments: None 



35 



1 . 



Designation : FIPS PUB 1-1968/ANSI X3. 4-1968 (ASCII) 1 

2. Title: American National Standard Code for Information Interchange 



3. Maintenance Authority : ANSI X3L2 

4. Scope: Hardware Standard. "This coded character set is to be used for the general 

interchange of information among information processing systems, communication 
systems, and associated equipment." 

5. Relationship to Other Standards : 

ISO 646-1973, (dialect) 

CCITT V. 3-1972 (dialect) 

FIPS PUB 2-1968/ANSI X3. 6-1965 (implementation, perforated tape) 

FIPS PUB 3-1, 1973/ANSI X3. 22-1973 (implementation, magnetic tape, 800 cpi ) 

FIPS PUB 7-1969 (implementation instructions, Presidential memo) 

FIPS PUB 1 4-1 971 /ANSI X3. 26-1970 (implementation, Hollerith punched card) 

FIPS PUB 15-1971 (subsets: 95, 64, 16 graphic characters) 

FIPS PUB 16-1971/ANSI X3. 15-1966 (implementation, bit sequencing) 

FIPS PUB 17-1971/ANSI X3. 16-1966 (implementation, character structure, serial) 

FIPS PUB 18-1971/ANSI X3. 25-1968 (implementation, character structure, parallel) 

FIPS PUB 25-1973/ANSI X3 . 39-1 973 (implementation, magnetic tape, 1600 cpi) 

FIPS PUB 35-1975/ANSI X3. 41-1974 (code extension, 7 or 8 bits) 

FIPS PUB 36-1975/ANSI X3. 32-1973 (graphical representation of controls) 

ANSI X3. 14-1973 (implementation, magnetic tape, 200 cpi) 

ANSI X3. 28-1971 (implementation, communication control characters) 

ANSI Z39. 2-1971 (superset, magnetic tape, bibliographic interchange) 

EIA RS-358 (1968) (subset, numerical machine control) 

ECMA-6 (dialect) 

6. Competitive Standards : EBCDIC, FIELDATA, TELETYPESETTER, CORRESPONDENCE Code 

(Some IBM Selectric Typewriter Terminals), EIA RS-RS-244A, and all other coded character 
sets in use prior to 1963. 

7. Standardization Status : First approved in 1963. Revised in a major sense in 

1967, with a further minor revision in 1968 into the standard now in effect. Another 
minor revision is expected in 1977. 

8. Implementation Status : ASCII is the most widely implemented code in ADP terminals 

and in communication systems. It is implemented as the internal code of most mini- 
computers and microprocessors, all DEC computers, NCR Century and Criterion computers, 
and the newer large UNIVAC computers and many European computers. It would be more 
widely implemented in American computers except for the severe competition from 
EBCDIC in IBM 360, 370, and other computers compatible therewith. 

9. Known Manufacturing Uses : Data and message communications; direct numerical control 

(EIA RS-358 subset); code used in minicomputers and microprocessors. 

10. Known Sources of Information : Mr. Charles D. Card, UNIVAC, Chairman of ANSI X3L2, 

(215) 542-3675; Mr. John L. Little, NBS , member of ANSI X3L2, (301 ) 921 -3723; 

Mr. William F. Hanrahan, Secretary of ANSI X3, (202) 466-2288 

11. Probable Sources of Information : DEC, NCR, Honeywell, Teletype Corporation 

12. Bibliography : FIPS PUB 1-1968/ANSI X3. 4-1968 (base standard); FIPS PUB 7-1969 

(implementation instructions); FIPS PUB 35-1975/ANSI X3. 41-1974 (extension in 
7 or 8 bits); Western Union Technical Bulletin 71-1, "The ASCII Codes (1963, 

1967, and 1968 Versions)." 



36 



13. Consents : ASCII is a fundamental standard upon which many other hardware and software 
standards are based. It has counterparts in international and Federal standards, 
as well as in many foreign national standards. 



1 



The standard also allows the abbreviation 



"USASCII 



but ASCII is much more prevalent. 



37 



Designation : ISO 646-1973 



2. Title: Seven-Bit Coded Character for Information Processing Interchange 

3. Maintenance Authority : IS0/TC97/SC2 

4. Scope: Hardware Standard. "This character set (of 128 characters) is primarily 

intended for the interchange of information among data processing systems and 
associated equipment, and within message transmission systems. This character 
set is applicable to all Latin alphabets." 

5 . Relationship to Other Standards : CCITT Recommendation V. 3-1972 is essentially 

identical to this standard. Similar to ASCII (ANSI X3. 4-1968) and the national 
standards of many other countries, e.g., GOST 13052-1967 (USSR). Similar to ECMA-6, 
ISO 2022-1973 (extension in 7 or 8 bits). 

6. Competitive Standards : EBCDIC in IBM 360, 370 computers, and all coded character 

sets that were in use prior to 1963. 

7. Standardization Status : First approved in December 1967 as 6 and 7-bit coded 
character sets. The 6-bit set was derived from an ECMA 6-bit code and the 7-bit 
one was derived from ASCII (X3. 4-1967), each of which influenced the other. The 
current 1973 version relegates the 6-bit set to an appendix which is no longer 

part of the standard. The 1973 standard contains a "Basic Code Table" and an "Inter- 
national Reference Version" (IRV). The basic code table allows national options 
while the IRV does not. 

8. Implementation Status : CCITT Recommendation V. 3-1 968 is identical to this 

standard except for a few restrictions governing international communication. 

National implementations, such as ASCII (ANSI X3. 4-1968) can be considered 
implementations of this standard. 

9. Known Manufacturing Uses : A subset of this standard, in EIA RS-358 (1968), is used 

as a perforated tape code for numerical control of machine tools. 

10. Known Sources of Information: Mr. John L. Little, NBS, (301) 921-3723; 

Mr. Robert M. Brown, CBEMA, (202) 466-2288. 

11. Probable Sources of Information : IBM, Sperry UNIVAC, Honeywell, DEC, NCR, Teletype 

Corporation 

12. Bibl iography : ISO 646-1973, available from ANSI. 

13. Comments : Extension techniques for this basic code are given in ISO 2022-1973. 

A draft "ISO International Register of Character Sets to be used with Escape Sequences 
for Information Interchange in Data Processing" is published in document IS0/TC97/SC2 
N1000, maintained by AFN0R in Paris, France. 



38 



1 . 



Designation : CCITT V. 3-1972 



2. Title : International Alphabet No. 5 

3. Maintenance Authority : CCITT 

4. Scope : Hardware Standard. "This character set (of 128 characters) is primarily 

intended for the interchange of information among data processing systems and 
associated equipment, and within message transmission systems. This character 
set is applicable to all Latin alphabets." 

5. Relationship to Other Standards : ISO 646-1973 is essentially identical to this 

standard. This standard is similar to ASCII (ANSI X3 . 4-1 968 ) and to the national 
standards of many other countries, as well as to ECMA-6. See FIPS PUB1 . 

6. Competitive Standards : EBCDIC in IBM 360, 370 computers, and all coded character 

sets in use prior to 1963. 

7. Standardization Status : First approved in 1968 at the CCITT plenary session at 

Mar del Plata, Argentina, and amended in 1972 at Geneva. 

8. Implementation Status : National implementations, such as ASCII (ANSI X3. 4-1968) 

can be considered implementations of this standard. It is implemented in many 
international communication networks. 

9. Known Manufacturing Uses : A subset of this standard, in EIA RS-358 (1968), is 

used as a perforated tape code for numerical control of machine tools. 

10. Known Sources of Information : Mr. Ira W. Cotton, NBS, (301) 921-2601; 

Mr. Arthur Freeman, U.S. Department of State, (202) 632-1007. 

11. Probable Sources of Information : Teletype Corporation, ITT, RCA, Western Union 

12. Bib! iography : The International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee 

(C.C. I .T.T. ) Fifth Plenary Assembly, Geneva, 4-15 December 1972, "Green Book" 

Vol . VIII, Data Transmission, published by the International Telecommunications 
Union, 1973. 

13. Comments : This standard was developed jointly with ISO 646-1973 and is virtually 
identical to that standard. C.C. I. T.T. is the French abbreviation for International 
Consultative Committee on Telegraph and Telephone. In most nations of the world 
(but not the U.S. A.), its recommendations are given the force of law. The U.S. 

is represented on the CCITT by the U.S. Department of State. By way of contrast, 
the U.S. is represented on ISO and IEC by ANSI. The CCITT is an organ of the 
International Telecommunications Union (ITU) which is reported to be the oldest 
international standardizing body in the world. The ITU is now an organ of the 
United Nations. 



39 



1 . 



Desi gnation : IBM CSS 3-3220-002, EBCDIC^ 

2. Title : Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code (LATIN ALPHABETS) 

3. Maintenance Authority : IBM Systems Standards Department, Poughkeepsie, New York 

4. Scope : "This standard defines for the IBM Corporation the BCD coded representation 

for up to 256 graphics and controls in punched cards, in magnetic tape, on data 
transmission lines, and in 8-bit BCD CPU’s. It also defines a collating sequence." 

5. Relationship to Other Standards : This is a commercial standard. In 1970 IBM 

distributed copies through the European Computer Manufacturers Association (ECMA) 
and encouraged its adoption as a standard. No formal recognition has been granted 
to EBCDIC as a national or international standard. It is used in various forms 

by some other computer vendors who wish to provide easy transition from IBM products 
to competitive ones. 

6. Competitive Standards: ISO 646-1973, CCITT V. 3-1972, ANSI X3. 4-1968 (ASCII), 

FIELDATA, TELETYPESETTER. 

7. Standardization Status : None, except as an IBM corporate systems standard. 

8. Implementation Status : Implemented in IBM 360 and 370, System 3, System 32 

computers, Amdahl computers and with variations in certain Burroughs, Honeywell 
and Univac (RCA) computers. Used in the RYAD series of computers built in the 
Soviet bloc countries in order to provide compatibility with IBM. 

9. Known Manufacturing Uses : Used in IBM computer-aided design systems. 

10. Known Sources of Information : Mr. Hubert F. Ickes, IBM, (914) 463-9779; 

Mr. Robert H. Follett, IBM, (301) 897-3471; Mr. John L. Little, NBS , (301) 921-3723. 

11. Probable Sources of Information : Mr. Robert M. Brown, Vice Chairman of ANSI X3, CBEMA, 

(202) 466-2288. 

12. Bib! iography : IBM Corporate Systems Standard CSS 3-3220-002, November 1970, 

Extended BCD Interchange Code, Latin Alphabets. IBM System 370, Principles of 
Operation, 6A 22-7000-4, File No. S/370-01, Appendix H. 

13. Comments : Representation of the 128 ASCII characters in EBCDIC coding is shown in 
an Appendix (not part of the standard) to the Hollerith Punched Card Code, ANSI 
X3. 26-1970 (FIPS PUB 14). 



1 Supersedes IBM CSS 2-8015-002, EBCDIC. 



40 



1 . 



Designation : Encryption Algorithm 



2. Title : Encryption Algorithm for Computer Data Protection 

3. Maintenance Authority : U.S. Department of Commerce, NBS 

4. Scope : This algorithm is designed to encipher and decipher blocks of data 

consisting of 64 bits under control of a 64-bit key. 

5. Relationship to Other Standards : Identical to an IBM encryption algorithm. 

6. Competitive Standards : None 

7. Standardization Status: Published as a proposed Federal standard in the Federal 

Register , Vol . 40, No. 52, March 17, 1975, pp. 12134-12139. 

8. Implementation Status : Implemented in IBM encryption/decryption equipment, 

and in integrated circuit chips supplied by several vendors. 

9. Known Manufacturing Uses : IBM, NSA. 

10. Known Sources of Information : Dr. Dennis K. Branstad, NBS, (301) 921-3861. 

11. Probable Sources of Information : IBM, NSA. 

12. Bibliography: Federal Register, Vol. 40, No. 52, March 17, 1975, pp. 12134- 

12139. U.S. Patent Nos. 3,796,830 and 3,798,359. 

13. Comments : The Federal standard is identical to an IBM algorithm. IBM will grant a 
royalty-free license, as stated in the Federal Register cited above. 



1 . 



Designation : EIA RS-358 (1968)/IS0 840-1973 

2. Title : Subset of USA Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) for 

Numerical Machine Control Perforated Tape 

3. Maintenance Authority : EIA E I -31 

4. Scope : Hardware Standard. "This standard describes a subset of USAS X3. 4-1967 

(ANSI X3. 4-1968) for numerically controlled machines and associated perforated 
tape preparation equipment." 

5. Relationship to Other Standards : ANSI X3. 4-1968 (base); FIPS PUB 2-1968/ANSI 

X3 .6-1 965 (implementation, perforated tape). ISO 840-1973 is the same coding. 

ISO 1113 is a compatible implementation in perforated tape. 

6. Competitive Standards : EIA RS-244A-1967 

7. Standardization Status : Approved by EIA in July 1968 

8. Implementation Status : Implemented in all newer numerically-controlled machine tools. 

Some have a switch that allows either this standard or RS-244A coding to be used 

in the same machine. 

9. Known Manufacturing Uses : Widely used as the perforated tape coding for numerically 

controlled machine tools. 

10. Known Sources of Information : Mr. A. M. Wilson, EIA, (202) 659-2200; 

Mr. John L. Little, NBS , (301) 921-3723. 

1 1 . Probable Sources of Information : NMTBA 

12. Bibliography : EIA RS-358, EIA RS-244A, ISO 840, ISO 1113 

13. Comments : The original perforated tape code standard for numerical control was 

approved in July 1961 (before ASCII) as EIA RS-244, a BCD coding as used in 
Flexowriters. A revision, RS-244A was approved in January 1967 and the conflicting 
RS-358 was approved in July 1968. RS-244A will be rescinded in order to resolve 

the conflict. The character sets of EIA RS-244A and RS-358 are the same, but the 
coding is very different. 



42 



1 . 



Designation: EIA RS-274-C 



2. Title : Interchangeable Perforated Tape Variable Block Format for Positioning, 

Contouring and Contouring/Positioning Numerically Controlled Machines. 

3. Maintenance Authority : EIA EI-31 

4. Scope : This standard applies wherever a variable block format is used on perforated 

tape to control numerically controlled machines. 

5. Relationship to Other Standards : This standard has replaced EIA RS-273-B (rescinded), 

variable block for positioning and straight cut, EIA RS-326-A (rescinded), fixed 
block for positioning and straight cut, and EIA RS-274-B, variable block for contouring 
and contouring/positioning. It may in turn be superseded by EIA SP-1177A, command 

and data format for advanced contouring and positioning. 

6. Competitive Standards : 

7. Standardization Status : RS-274 was approved in January 1963. It became ANSI standard 

X3. 8-1965. RS-274-A was a revision and RS-274-B became ANSI standard X8. 2-1968. 

RS-274-C was approved (SP-1147) in April 1974. 

8. Implementation Status : Widely implemented in numerical control equipment. 

9. Known Manufacturing Uses : Widely used in production where numerical control is 

involved. 

10. Known Sources of Information : Mr. A. M. Wilson, EIA, (202) 659-2200; 

Dr. John M. Evans, Jr., NBS, (301) 921-2381 

1 1 . Probable Sources of Information : NMTBA 

12. Bibliography : EIA RS-274-C 

13. Comments : This was formerly known as EIA Standards Proposal No. 1147 (SP-1147), 

March 13, 1973. RS-274-C may be superseded by EIA SP-1177A. 



43 



1 . 



Designation : EIA SP-1177A (a proposal currently under revision) 



2. Title: Recommended Command and Data Format for Advanced Contouring and Positioning 

Numerically Controlled Machines 

3. Maintenance Authority : EIA EI-31 

4. Scope: Hardware Standard. "This standard is intended to serve as a guide in 

the coordination of system design to promote uniformity in part programming and 
operating techniques for inputting extended machine set-up, initialization, and/or 
operational parameter data." 

5. Relationship to Other Standards : Machine program data are formatted in accordance 

with EIA RS-274-C. This standard, when approved, will supersede EIA Automation 
Bulletin No. 4, March 1969. It will also probably supersede EIA RS-274-C, which 
in turn superseded RS-273-A, RS-274-B, and RS-326. 

6. Competitive Standards : 

7. Standardization Status: This revision of SP-1177 was circulated for EIA ballot on 

April 23, 1975. 

8. Implementation Status : Used in all new US computer numerical control (CNC) equipment. 

9. Known Manufacturing Uses : Will be widely used in production where CNC is 
involved. 

10. Known Sources of Information: Mr. A. M. Wilson, EIA, (202) 659-2200; 

Dr. John M. Evans, Jr., NBS, (301) 921-2381. 

1 1 . Probable Sources of Information : NMTBA 

12. Bib! iography : EIA Standards Proposal No. 1177-A (Revision of SP-1177), April 23, 1975. 

13. Comments : This SP-1177A will become an EIA Recommended Standard (RS) when the 
various points of view and controversy are resolved. SP-1177A contains three key 
concepts: the overall architecture of an NC system, specially identifying interfaces 
to external components; an escape code to go from RS-358 to full ASCII ("type 1 

and type 2 data"); and phonetic abbreviations for CNC control functions. The 
proposed standard is essentially a guideline for the development of advanced 
systems by NC control manufacturers. 



44 



1. Designation : FIPS PUB 36-1975/ANSI X3. 32-1973 

2. Title : Graphic Representation of the Control Characters of ASCII 

3. Maintenance Authority : NBS/ANSI X3L2 

4. Scope : Hardware Standard. This standard provides a graphic representation of the 

control characters of ASCII, including SPACE and DELETE. The standard contains 

two alternative sets of representations: a pictorial representation and an alphanumeric 
representation. 

5. Relationship to Other Standards : Gives single or dual symbol representation of the 

32 controls as well as SPACE and DELETE of the ASCII code standard, FIPS PUB 1/ANSI 
X3. 4-1968. 

6. Competitive Standards : None 

7. Standardization Status : The ANSI standard X3. 32-1973 was first approved on July 3, 
1973. FIPS PUB 36, adopting the ANSI standard in its entirety, was approved on 
June 1, 1975. 

8. Implementation Status : Has been implemented on paper tape equipment that prints 

one symbol per tape character frame. Has also been implemented in some display 
terminals to display character streams, including controls. See comments below. 

9. Known Manufacturing Uses : 

10. Known Sources of Information: Mr. C. D. Card, UNIVAC, Chairman ANSI X3L2, 

(215) 542-3675; Mr. John L. Little, NBS, (301) 921-3723; Mr. Robert M. Brown, 

Vice Chairman of ANSI X3, CBEMA, (202) 466-2288. 

11. Probable Sources of Information : Honeywell, Teletype Corporation, Omron. 

12. Bibliography : FIPS PUB 36, ANSI X3. 32-1973 

13. Comments : Implemented (except for the Backspace character representation) in Teletype 
Model 40 display/printing terminals. Implemented (except for the NULL character 
representation) in Omron Model 8025 keyboard display terminals. 



45 



1. Designation : FIPS PUB 14/ANSI X3. 26-1970 

2. Title : Hollerith Punched Card Code 

3. Maintenance Authority : ANSI X3L2 

4. Scope: Hardware Standard. This standard specifies 256 hole patterns in twelve- 

row punched cards. Hole patterns are assigned to the 128 characters of ASCII 
(FIPS PUB 1/ANSI X3. 4-1968). 

5. Relationship to Other Standards: This standard gives the implementation of FIPS 

PUB 1/ANSI X3. 4-1968 (ASCII) in twelve-row punched cards. FIPS PUB 13/ANSI X3. 21-1967, 
Rectangular Holes in Twelve-Row Punched Cards, gives dimensions and dimensional 
tolerances of the cards and holes. ANSI X3. 11-1969, Specifications for General 
Purpose Paper Cards for Information Processing, gives properties of the card stock. 

6. Competitive Standards : The round hole "90 column" cards formerly marketed 

by UNIVAC are obsolete. The 96-column round hole cards introduced with the IBM 
System 3 are not compatible with this standard. 

7. Standardization Status : FIPS PUBs 13 and 14 were both approved on October 1, 1971. 

ANSI Standard X3. 21-1967 was first approved in 1967. ANSI Standard X3. 26-1970 

was first approved in 1970. 

8. Implementation Status : These standards are widely implemented in punched card 

accounting machines and as input media for computers. 

9. Known Manufacturing Uses : Used in many applications where programs or data are 

entered into computers via rectangular-hole punched cards. 

10. Known Sources of Information: Mr. John L. Little, NBS, (301) 921-3723; 

Mr. H. F. Ickes, IBM, (914) 463-9779. 

11. Probable Sources of Information : Honeywell, UNIVAC 

12. Bibliography : FIPS PUB 14/ANSI X3. 26-1970, Hollerith Punched Card Code. 

13. Comments : The Hollerith Punched Card Code has 256 hole patterns which map into 
8-bit ASCII (see Table 1 of the ANSI Standard X3. 26-1970) and also map into 8-bit 
EBCDIC, establishing the basis of code conversion between EBCDIC and ASCII, which is 
spoiled somewhat by IBM practice. See the writeup on "Code Conversion." 

The Hollerith Punched Card Code specified in ANSI Standard X3. 26-1970 is based upon 
and earlier "Business" version having the symbols Ampersand, Commercial At, Number 
Sign, and Percent Sign included in a 48-character set. Several other versions, 
most notably a "Scientific" version which replaced some of the business symbols with 
FORTRAN algebra symbols Plus Sign, Apostrophe, Equals Sign, and Parentheses in a 
48-character set are still in de facto use. When extended beyond 48 characters, 
these two versions employ the same set of Hollerith hole patterns in different ways, 
compatible with the earlier 48-character versions. The NBS UNIVAC 1108 "scientific" 
installation, for example, employs the standard hole patterns for some of the 
punctuation marks and special symbols (Period, Comma, Semicolon, Asterisk, Slant, 

Minus Sign, Dollar Sign) but deviates in the following hole pattern coding: 



46 



Hollerith 
Hole Pattern 



(Note 1) 



ANSI X3. 26-1970 



NBS UNIVAC 1108 



12 Ampersand & 

12-0 (Plus Zero) Opening Brace { 

11- 0 (Minus Zero) Closing Brace } 

8-2 Colon : 

8-3 Number Sign # 

8-4 Commercial At @ 

8-5 Apostrophe 1 

8-6 Equals Sign = 

8-7 Quotation Marks 11 

12- 8-2 Opening Bracket { 

12-8-4 Less Than < 

12-8-5 Opening Parenthesis 

12-8-6 Plus Sign + 

12-8-7 Exclamation Point ! 

11-8-2 Closing Bracket } 

11-8-5 Closing Parenthesis 

11-8-7 Circumflex A 

0-8-2 Reverse Slant \ 

0-8-4 Percent Sign % 

0-8-5 Underline _ 

0-8-6 Greater Than > 

0-8-7 Question Mark ? 



Plus Sign + 

Question Mark ? 

Exclamation Point ! 

Ampersand & 

Equals Sign = 

Apostrophe 1 
Colon : 

Greater Than > 

Commercial At @ (Master Space) 
(Not Used) 

Closing Parenthesis ) 

Opening Bracket { 

Less Than < 

Number Sign # 

(Not Used) 

Closing Bracket } 

Delta A (Note 2) 

Record Stop (Stop) 

Opening Parenthesis ( 

Percent Sign % 

Reverse Slant \ 

Losenge (Note 3) 



Note 1 Input: UNIVAC 706 Card Reader 

Output: UNIVAC 758 Printer 



Note 2 Prints Circumflex ( A ) or Up Arrow (+) on interactive ASCII 

terminals. Prints a triangle (Delta) (A) on batch terminals. 



Note 3 Prints Quotation Marks (") on interactive ASCII terminals. Prints a 
Losenge or Rectangular Box on batch terminals. 



Hollerith hole patterns for Space (no punches), 10 decimal digits (one punch), 

26 Latin capital letters (two punches), as well as hole patterns for Period, 
Comma, and Asterisk (three punches) are universally standard, in accordance with 
ANSI X3. 26-1970. Hole patterns for Minus Sign, Slant, and Dollar Sign are nearly 
universal, in accordance with ANSI X3. 26-1970. 



47 



1 . 



Designation : FIPS PUB 2/ANSI X3. 6-1965 

2. Title : Perforated Tape Code for Information Interchange 

3. Maintenance Authority : ANSI X3B2 

4. Scope: Hardware Standard. This standard specifies the representation of the 

Federal Standard Code for Information Interchange (FIPS PUB 1, ASCII) on perforated 
tape used in Federal information processing systems, communication systems, and 
associated equipment. 

5. Relationship to Other Standards : See FIPS PUB 12-2, page 18 for 11 other standards 

related to this one, under "Media, Perforated Tape." EIA RS-358 is a subset of 
this code for numerical machine control perforated tape. 

6. Competitive Standards : None recognized as standards. All perforated tape codes 

in use prior to 1965 are competitive. EIA RS-244A is an early competitive standard 
for numerical machine control perforated tape. Teletypesetter code is still used 
in newspaper communications and in typesetting perforated tape. 

7. Standardization Status : FIPS PUB 2 was approved on November 1, 1968. ANSI X3. 6-1965 

was approved in 1965. Neither has been updated. EIA RS-244A has been rescinded in 
favor or EIA RS-358. 

8. Implementation Status : Widely used in perforated tape equipment, including input/ 

output to minicomputers and in communications. 

9. Known Manufacturing Uses : The subset in EIA RS-358 is widely used in numerical 

control perforated tapes for drafting and machine control. 

10. Known Sources of Information : Mr. John L. Little, NBS, (301) 921-3723; 

Mr. John B. Booth, Teletype Corporation, (312) 982-3630. 

11. Probable Sources of Information : DEC, Honeywell 

12. Bibl iography : FIPS PUB 2/ANSI X3. 6-1965, Perforated Tape Code for Information 

Interchange; FIPS PUB 12-2, page 18. 

13. Comments : IBM has always emphasized punched cards and magnetic tape in preference 
to perforated tape. DEC uses perforated tape and magnetic tape in preference to 
punched cards. 



48 



1. Designation : ANSI X3. 28-1976 Communication Protocol (Link Level) Standards - 

Character Oriented 

2. Title : Procedures for the Use of the Communication Control Characters of ASCII 

in Specified Data Communication Links 

3. Maintenance Authority : ANSI X3S3, Task Group 3 

4. Scope : Protocols for Link Level Data Communication 

5. Relationship to Other Standards : 

ANSI X3.4 (ASCII Character Set, Control Characters Used to Format Transmission) 

ISO R1 745-1971 (Dialect} 

ECMA-16, 1973 (Dialect)' 

ISO R21 11-1 972 (Extension to Base Mode for Code-Independent Information Transfer) 

ISO R2629-1973 (Extension to Basic Mode for Conversational Information Transfer) 
ECMA-24, 1969 (Extension to Basic Mode for Code-Independent Information Transfer) 
ECMA-26, 1971 (Extension to Basic Mode for Recovery Procedures) 

ECMA-27, 1971 (Extension to Basic Mode for Abort and Interrupt Procedures) 

ECMA-28, 1971 (Extension to Basic Mode for Multiple Station Selection) 

ECMA-29, 1971 (Extension to Basic Mode for Conversational Information Transfer) 

ECMA-37, 1972 (Extension to Basic Mode for Supplementary Transmission Functions) 

6. Competitive Standards : IBM's Binary Synchronous Communications, BISYNC/IBM Order 
No. GA27-3004- 2/10/70 (more extensive than X3.28, and utilizing EBCDIC Character 
Set) . 

7. Standardization Status : Revised Standard Issued in 1976. 

8. Implementation Status : No known implementations adhering strictly to the standard 

classes of procedures. Each computer manufacturer has implemented a different part 
of X3.28. The standard specifies approximately 140 different system configurations 
that can be implemented conforming to the standard. 

9. Known Manufacturing Uses : 

10. Known Sources of Information : Mr. George E. Clark, NBS, (301) 921-3723. 

1 1 . Probable Sources of Information : 

12. Bib! iography : ANSI X3. 28-1971, "Procedures for the Use of the Communication Control 

Characters of American National Standard Code for Information Interchange in 
Specified Data Communication Links", American National Standards Institute, Inc., 

New York, NY, 10018. 

13. Comments : Not a FIPS standard because does not provide for compatibility and data 
interchange among different systems. 



1 



ECMA is European Computer Manufacturers Association 



49 



1. Designation : ANSI X3S34/589 (Draft 5) Communication Protocol (Link Level) 

Standards - Bit Oriented 

2. Title: Proposed ANS for Advanced Data Communication Control Procedures 

TfiSCCP) (Draft 5, 4/9/76) 

3. Maintenance Authority : ANSI X3S3, Task Group 4 

4. Scope : Hardware/Software. The (proposed) standard establishes procedures to be 

used on synchronous communications links. 

5. Relationship to Other Standards : IBM Synchronous Data Unk Control (SDLC) -j s a subset 

of ADCCP. IBM Document GA27-3093-1 

6. Competitive Standards : ANSI X3.28 (character oriented), IBM BISYNC (Character 

oriented), DEC DDCMP 

7. Standardization Status : Draft 5 being circulated for letter ballot. 

8. Implementation Status : No known implementation operational. IBM's SDLC may be 

functional at this time. A number of microprocessor chips are being developed to 
be used as ADCCP link controllers; one known effort is Motorola. 

9. Known Manufacturing Uses : 

10. Known Sources of Information : ANSI Committee X3, Tech. Committee X3S3, Task 

Group 4; Mr. George E. Clark, NBS, (301) 921-3723. 

11. Probable Sources of Information : IBM, Honeywell 

12. Bibl iography : 

ANSI X3S34/589 (Fifth Draft) 4/9/76, Advanced Data Communication Control Procedures, 
American National Standards Institute. 

Donnan, R. A., and J. Ray Kersey, "Synchronous Data Link Control: A Perspective", 

IBM Systems J. , 13 , 2, 197. 

Sanders, R. W., and V. G. Cerf, "Compatibility or Chaos in Communications", 

Datamation , 3/76, pp. 50-55. 

13. Comments : IBM is known to be basing most of its networking efforts on the use 
of SDLC as a link-level protocol. 



50 



1. Designation : DDCMP Communication Protocol (Link Level) - Bit Oriented 

2. Title : DDCMP - Digital Data Communications Message protocol, Ed. 3, 12/10/74 

3. Maintenance Authority : Digital Equipment Corp., Maynard, Mass., 01754 

4. Scope : Hardware/Software protocol to supporl message communication between 

(processes running on) computers. 

5. Relationship to Other Standards : 

6. Competitive Standards : 

Bit-oriented: ADCCP (ANSI X3S34/589, Draft 5); SDLC (IBM Document GA27 -3093-1 ) 

Character-oriented: ANSI X3 . 28-1 971 ; IBM Binary Synchronous Communications Protocol 
(IBM Document GA27-3004-2) 

7. Standardization Status : Apparently an internal corporate standard for network 

implementations utilizing DEC computer equipment. 

8. Implementation Status : In limited use in-house at DEC/Maynard. 

9. Known Manufacturing Uses : None 

10. Known Sources of Information : Mr. Stu Wecker, DEC, Maynard, Mass., 01754 

1 1 . Probable Sources of Information : 

12. Bib! iography : DDCMP: Digital Data Communications Message Protocol, Specification 

Document, Ed. 3, 12/10/74. 

13. Comments : DDCMP is the (physical) link-level protocol supporting DNA, the Digital 

Network Architecture. The latter is the philosophical basis for the DECNET 
network systems yet to appear. 



51 



1 . 



Designation : SNA - Systems Network Architecture 



2. Title : Systems Network Architecture 

3. Maintenance Authority : International Business Machines Corp., White Plains, N.Y. 10604 

4. Scope : System (hardware and software) architecture for data communications and 

teleprocessing applications development and implementation. Includes the specification 
of link and higher levels of protocol. 

5. Relationship to Other Standards : Similar in intent to CCITT X.25 and DEC's DNA. 

Specifics of various levels differ. 

6. Competitive Standards : CCITT Recommendation X.25; Digital Equipment Corp. 

Digital Network Architecture (DNA) ARPANET Imp/Host protocol 

7. Standardization Status : Not intended as a standard. SNA is being used in the 

development of several IBM product lines. 

8. Implementation Status : Several IBM product lines, including point-of-sale terminal 

systems, are in various stages of implementation. 

9. Known Manufacturing Uses : None 

10. Known Sources of Information : IBM Systems Development Division, Advanced Systems 

Architecture, Dept. E97, P.0. Box 12195, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, 27709 

1 1 . Probable Sources of Information : 

12. Bib! iography : 

"Systems Network Architecture - General Information", IBM Doc. GA27-3102-0. 

McFadyen, J. H. "Systems Network Architecture: An Overview", IBM Systems J., 

15, 1, 1976, pp. 4-23. 

Cullen, P. G. "The Transmission Subsystem in Systems Network Architecture", 

IBM Systems J., 15, 1, 1976, pp. 24-38. 

Hobgood, W. S., "The Role of the Network Control Program in Systems Network 
Architecture", IBM Systems J., 15 . 1, 1976, pp. 39-52. 

13. Comments: 



52 



1. Designation : CCITT Recommendation X.25 Communication Protocol (Network Level) 

Standards - Packet Oriented 

2. Title : CCITT Recommendation X.25 - Interface Between Data Terminal Equipment and 

Data Circuit-Termination Equipment for Terminals Operating in the Packet Mode 

on Public Data Networks 

3. Maintenance Authority : CCITT 

4. Scope : Hardware/Software standard covering protocols relating to packet- 

switched computer networks. Covers three levels: Physical (Level 1) - X21 

(or RS-232); Link Access (Level 2) - HDLC Procedures; Packet format and control 
(Level 3) - Virtual Calls, Circuits. 

5. Relationship to Other Standards : 

CCITT Recommendation X.l - Classes of service for DTE in packet mode. 

CCITT Recommendation X.2 - User facilities in packet mode. 

CCITT Recommendation X.21, X . 2 1 b i s - DTE/DEC Interface Characteristics. 

CCITT Recommendation X.92 - Logical control links. 

CCITT Recommendation X.95 - Network parameters 
CCITT Recommendation X.96 - Call progress signals. 

6. Competitive Standards : IBM's System Network Architecture (SNA), IBM Document 

GA27-3102-0; DEC'S Digital Network Architecture (DNA). 

7. Standardization Status : Draft standard. Not yet official. 

8. Implementation Status : Unknown 

9. Known Manufacturing Uses : None 

10. Known Sources of Information : Mr. George E. Clark, NBS, (301) 921-3723. 

1 1 . Probable Sources of Information : 

12. Bib! iography : Sanders, Ray W. , Vincton G. Cerf, "Compatibility or Chaos in 

Communications", Datamation, 3/76, pp. 50-55; CCITT Recommendation X.25 (Doc. 
X3S37-76-14 and ANSI X3S33-76-6) 

13. Comments : This recommendation provides the electrical, link, and packet level 

procedures to implement a data network. The first two are based on existing 
standards or draft standards, and the third level is defined in the X.25 document. 



53 



1 . Designation : ARPANET Imp/Host Protocol 

2. Title : ARPANET Imp/Host Protocol 

3. Maintenance Authority : Bolt, Beranek and Newman, Inc., 50 Moulton St. 

Cambridge, Mass. 02138 

4. Scope : Software/Hardware specification of protocol governing the interface 

between a DTE (Host) and the ARPANET (i.e.. Imp). 

5. Relationship to Other Standards : Similar to CCITT X.25, DEC'S DNA and IBM's SNA. 

6. Competitive Standards : 

7. Standardization Status : None 

8. Implementation Status : Operational 

9. Known Manufacturing Uses : None 

10. Known Sources of Information : Network Control Center, BBN, Cambridge, Mass. 

11 . Probable Sources of Information : 

12. Bibliography : 

Bolt Beranek and Newman, "Specifications for the Interconnection of a Host and 
an Imp", BBN Report 1822, Rev. 4/73. 

Heart, F. E., et al . , "The Interface Message Processor for the ARPA Computer 
Network", Proc. SJCC, 5/7/70, pp. 551-567. 

13. Comments: 



54 



1 . 



Designation : Digital Network Architecture 



2. Title : Digital Network Architecture 

3. Maintenance Authority : Digital Equipment Corp., Maynard, Mass. 01754 

4. Scope : DNA is an architecture designed to permit the implementation of networks 

for data communication. It encompasses link (DDCMP), host/host (NSP), and process/ 
process (DAP) level protocols for data and control communication. 

5. Relationship to Other Standards : Similar in concept to IBM's SNA, CCITT Recommendation 

X.25, ARPANET Imp/Host Protocol 

6. Competitive Standards : IBM's SNA, CCITT X.25, ARPANET Imp/Host Protocol 

7. Standardization Status : Unknown 

8. Implementation Status : Partial, primarily in-house. 

9. Known Manufacturing Uses : Unknown 

10. Known Sources of Information : Stu Wecker, Digital Equipment Corp., Maynard, Mass. 

1 1 . Probable Sources of Information : 

12. Bib! iography : 

Wecker, S. "The Design of DECNET - A General Purpose Network Base" Presented at 
ELECTRO/76, Boston Mass., 5/76. 

Digital Equipment Corp., "Digital Network Architecture - Design Specification for 
Network Services Protocol (NSP)", 7/10/75. 

Digital Equipment Corp., "Digital Network Architecture - Design Specification for 
Digital Data Communications Message Protocol (DDCMP)", 12/10/75. 

13. Comments: 



55 



1 . Designation : ANSI X3J2/76-01 



2. Title : Proposed American National Standard for Minimal BASIC, January, 1976. 

3. Maintenance Authority : ANSI X3J2 

4. Scope : BASIC (Beginners All-purpose Symbolic ]ns>truction £ode) was orginally 

developed at Dartmouth College for use by nonprogrammers. It was designed for 
interactive use in program construction and debugging. The range of usage of BASIC 
has grown beyond the scopes of the originally intended audience. Usage has expanded 
in universities as well as industrial organizations. BASIC is, in general, an easy- 
to-learn language and can be applied to nonnumerical as well as numerical problems. 

5. Relationship to Other Standards : ANSI X3 .4-1 968 American National Standard Code 

for Information Interchange (base, 128-character set); ANSI X3. 42-1975 The Repre- 
sentation of Numerical Values in Character Strings for Information Interchange 
(proposed Minimal BASIC accommodates forms stipulated in X3.42). 

6. Competitive Standards : X3J3 dpANS FORTRAN^ 

7. Standardization Status : Approved by mail ballot of X3J2 and transmitted to X3 

for action on 12/31/75. No official designation given as yet. The status of the 
standard at X3 is unclear at this time, as well as the plans for publication for 
comment. 

8. Implementation Status: Honeywell 6635, 6080, 437; Hewlett-Packard 2000F, 3000; 

IBM 370/168, 145, 158; CDC 3300, 6500; PDP 1070; XDS 940; UNIVAC 1108. 

9. Known Manufacturing Uses : Graphics, Interactive Language Requirements 

10. Known Sources of Information : Dr. Thomas E. Kurtz, Director, Computation Center, 
Dartmouth College (Chairman X3J2); Mr. I. Trotter Hardy, NBS, (301) 921-3491, (NBS 
voting member on X3J2); Dr. David E. Gilsinn, NBS, (301) 921-3491. 

11. Probable Sources of Information : IBM, Sperry Rand, Hewlett-Packard, General 

Electric, Dartmouth College, Digital Equipment Corporation, Control Data 
Corporation 

12. Bibliography : 

ANSI X3J2/76-01 , Proposed American National Standard for Minimal Basic, Jan. 1976 

BASIC/3000, HP 

Real-Time BASIC, HP 

IBM BASIC for the 370 

BASIC (BNF) Burroughs 

BASIC, CDC 

BASIC, Multics 

Xerox BASIC 

JPL BASIC 

GE Mark III BASIC 

DEC, "BASIC-Plus Languages Manual" 

Bennet P. Leintz, "A Comparative Evaluation of Versions of BASIC," Comm, of the 
ACM , April 1976, Vol . 19, No. 4, pp. 175-188. 



56 



13 . 



Comments : The proposed standard specifies a minimum of 6 digits of numeric 
representation for precision. There is, however, a possible infinite loop case 
in the FOR-NEXT statement and there is a new language element OPTION BASE to 
specify array lower bounds that has not been implemented on any system. 



The FORTRAN standard was identified as a possible conflicting standard in the sense that 
BASIC is a FORTRAN-1 ike language. However, BASIC is more interactively oriented and minimizes 
format considerations. Both can be used to solve similar problems. 



57 



1. Designation : FIPS PUB 21-1, ANSI X3. 23-1974, ISO 1789 

2. Title : American National Standard COBOL 

3. Maintenance Authority: Commerce Department, National Bureau of Standards for 

FIPS PUB 21-1; ANSI X3J4 for ANSI X3. 23-1974. 

4. Scope : Programming language for use in computer applications that emphasize the 

manipulation of characters, records, files and input/output (as contrasted with those 
primarily concerned with computational problem solving). 

5. Relationship to Other Standards : FIPS PUB 44 - Standard COBOL Coding Form 

6. Competitive Standards : None 

7. Standardization Status : The documents cited represent the current revisions of the 

COBOL standard. 

8. Implementation Status : Wide range of general purpose computers. 

9. Known Manufacturing Uses : No known use for applications directly contributing to 
the manufacturing process; however, as stated under "Scope" above, is appropriate 
for predominantly data manipulation applications, usually in support of business 
management functions. 

10. Known Sources of information : Ms. Mabel Vickers, NBS, COBOL Project Manager, (301) 

921-3491; Jitze Couperus, Chairman, ANSI X3J4, (408) 734-7499. 

11. Probable Sources of Information : William Rinehuls, USAF, DoD Standards Coordinator, 

(202) 695-6547 

12. Bib! iography : 

FIPS PUB 21-1, COBOL, December 1, 1975 
ANSI X3. 23-1974, COBOL, May 10, 1974 

C0DASYL COBOL Journal of Development, 1976, (current developments of COBOL) 

FIPS PUB 44, Standard COBOL Coding Form, September 1, 1976 

13. Comments : The COBOL standard is supported by a mechanism for the continued develop- 
ment and standardization of the languge as dictated by user needs and state-of-the-art 
developments in language use and implementation. The Federal standard is supported 

by Federal Property Management Regulation 101-32.1305-1 which specifies the 
procurement and compiler testing policies applicable to Federal agencies. 



58 



1 . 



Designation : ANSI X3. 9-1966 



2. Title : American National Standard FORTRAN 

3. Maintenance Authority : ANSI X3J3 

4. Scope : Programming language for scientific and engineering applications. 

5. Relationship to Other Standards : ANSI X3. 10-1966, Basic FORTRAN (subset); ANSI 

X3 . 42-1 975 , The Representation of Numeric Values in Character Strings for Information 
Interchange, (the FORTRAN standard accommodates forms stipulated in X3.42). 

6. Competitive Standards : PL/I 

7. Standardization Status : ANSI standardization completed March 1966; revision thereto 

is now out for public review, comment and X3 ballot; action date January 1977; 

new designation to be X3. 9-1 977. 

8. Implementation Status : All general purpose computers; most manufacturers are now 

updating their compilers to meet the proposed revision. 

9. Known Manufacturing Uses : Scientific applications, numerical control, preprocessors 

and postprocessors. Most scientific and engineering application programs are 
coded in FORTRAN. 

10. Known Sources of Information : Mrs. Francis E. Holberton, NBS, (301) 921-3491; 

Mr. William F. Hanrahan, Secretary, ANSI X3, (202) 466-2288. 

11 . Probable Sources of Information : 

12. Bibliography : ANSI X3. 9-1966 (Current) ANS FORTRAN 

ANSI X3 BSR 3.9, March 1976 (same as X3J3/76) draft proposed ANS FORTRAN 

13. Comments: 



59 



1 . 



Designation : MDC/28, MDC/33, and MDC/34 

Title: MUMPS Language Standard 



3. Maintenance Authority : MUMPS Development Committee 

4. Scope : Programming language for interactive data handling. 

5. Relationship to Other Standards : FIPS PUB 1/ANSI X3. 4-1968, ASCII (base, 1 28- 
character set); FIPS PUB 15-1971 (base, 64-character graphic subset) 

6. Competitive Standards : None 

7. Standardization Status : ANSI letter ballot mailed May 24, 1976; action date 

November 24, 1976; designation to be ANSI Xll.l 

8. Implementation Status : Standard implementations: Artronix PC-16, Burroughs B-6700, 

DEC PDP-10, DEC PDP-11, IBM 360/370, Philips P856/857; being implemented on 
machines of six additional manufacturers. 

9. Known Manufacturing Uses : String handling applications, such as in inventory 

control and parts cataloging. 

10. Known Sources of Information : Mr. J. T. O'Neill, NBS, (301) 921-3485, Jack Bowie, Sc.D., 
Chairman, MUMPS Development Committee, (617) 726-3937. 

11 . Probable Sources of Information : 

12. Bib! iography : 

NBS Handbook 118, issued January 1976, with errata dated March 9, 1976, MUMPS 
Language Standard' 

MDC/29, 5/28/75 , MUMPS Interpreter Validation Program User Guide 
MDC/30, 6/25/75, MUMPS Translation Methodology 
MDC/35, 10/14/75, MUMPS Documentation Manual 
MDC 1/11, 6/13/75, MUMPS Primer 

MDC 2/1, 5/15/75, MUMPS Globals and Their Implementation 

MDC 2/2, 5/30/75, Design of a Multiprogramming System for the MUMPS Language 

MDC 2/3, 6/15/75, Implementation of the MUMPS Language Standard 

MDC 3/5, 8/31/76, MUMPS Programmers' Reference Manual 

13. Comments: 



NBS Handbook 118 consists of three MUMPS Development Committee documents, namely. Part 
I, MDC/28, MUMPS Language Specification, dated March 12, 1975; Part II, MDC/33, 
MUMPS Transition Diagrams, dated September 17, 1975; and Part III, MDC/34, MUMPS 
Portability Requirements, dated September 17, 1975). 



60 



1 . 



Designation : None 



2. Title : PASCAL 

3. Maintenance Authority : Prof. N. Wirth, Institut fur Informatik, Clausiusstrasse 

55, CH-8006 Zurich. 

4. Scope : General purpose programming language. 

5. Relationship to Other Standards : Designed to replace ALGOL 60. A commercially 

available process control language is a superset of PASCAL. 

6. Competitive Standards : ALGOL-W 

7. Standardization Status : The original PASCAL is the product of Prof. Wirth, so 

the standardization is fairly clear. 

8. Implementation Status : Available on: DEC PDP-10, PDP-11; CDC 6000; CII IRIS 80, 

CII 10070; IBM 360/370; Univac 1108; XDS Sigma 7. 

9. Known Manufacturing Uses : Scientific and engineering programming as well as some 

systems implementation programming. 

10. Known Sources of Information : George H. Richmond, Editor, PASCAL Newletter, 

University of Colorado Computer Center, 3645 Marine Street Bolder, Colorado 80302 

11 . Probable Sources of Information : 

12. Bibliography : 

A. N. Habermann, "Critical comments on the programming language PASCAL," NTIS 
# PD-224 777, Oct. 1973, 22 pp. 

C.A.R. and N. Wirth, "An axiomatic definition of the programming language PASCAL," 
30 pp. 

Kathleen Jensen and Niklaus Wirth, PASCAL: User Manual and Report, Lecture 
Notes in Computer Science 18, Springer-Verl ag (New York, 1974), 169 pp. 
also Geo. H. Richmond, Ed., PASCAL Newsletter, from 1974 onward. 

13. Comments : Primary community of users is found in academic institutions. 



61 



1 . 



Designation : ANSI BSR X3.53 BASIS/1-12, Feb. 1975. 

Title: PL/ I 



3. Maintenance Authority : ANSI 

4. Scope : General purpose omnibus programming language. 

5. Relationship to Other Standards : None, except that language is generally thought 

of as a replacement for both FORTRAN and COBOL, and probably ALGOL too. 

6. Competitive Standards : dpANS FORTRAN, dpANS COBOL 

7. Standardization Status : BASIS/1-12 + errata sent to ECMA General Assembly for vote in 

Jan. 1976. Also sent to ANSI X3 for general processing. 

8. Implementation Status : All major IBM systems. Dialects on Honeywell, CDC, and 

university installations (PL/C, etc.), including Amdahl machines 

9. Known Manufacturing Uses : Business, scientific, engineering. 

10. Known Sources of Information : IBM Corporation; General Electric; Honeywell Multics 
documents, Cornell PL/C user guides, etc. 

1 1 . Probable Sources of Information : 

12. Bibliography : ANSI BSR X3.53 BASIS/1-12, Feb. 1975 

BSR X3.53 Errata sheets, Jan. 1976 
BSR X3.53 CHAP. 1, revised Feb. 1976 
Many textbooks, e.g., W.W. Peterson 

13. Comments : Standard is pending approval. PL/I is a very large and very powerful 
programming language. It was designed somewhat hurriedly and the design is 
therefore not the most elegant. 



62 



1 . 



Designation : None 



2. Title : Composite summary sheet on Simulation Languages 

3. Maintenance Authority : Various developers 

4. Scope : Simulation languages can be divided into three clases, namely, continuous 

discrete, and hybrid. Continuous languages are for implementing models of systems 
having continuous dynamic change (i.e., sets of differential equations). Discrete, 
languages are for models showing discrete change (i.e., queuing and resource 
allocation). Hybrid languages combine both features into one package. 

The process of simulation involves: 

a. developing a system model expressed in mathematical, logical, or graphical 
notation , 

b. implementing the model in a computer using simulation language notation, 

c. validating the model to insure an acceptable degree of accuracy, and 

d. running the model to accrue experimental data. 

Simulation languages are usually of three programmatic types: 

1. routines for simulation embedded in a general source language such as FORTRAN, 

2. an entire higher order source language, or 

3. a data base-driven set of object code. 

In certain cases, simulation languages are employed in real-time to accept inputs 
sensed from some controlled system or process. 



5. Relationship to Other Standards : N/A 



6. 


Competitive Standards: N/A 






7. 


Standardization Status: None 






8. 


Implementation Status: 






9. 


Known Manufacturing Uses: Control of processes; design 


of processes and facilities; 




resource allocation and planning. 






10. 


Known Sources of Information: Mr. Paul F. Roth, NBS, 


(301 


) 921-3545. 


11. 


Probable Sources of Information: Various developers 






12. 


Bibliography: G. Gordon, System Simulation, Prentice 


Hall 


, 1969. 



13. Comments : No standard summary sheets are included here because there are no 

standards in this area. Simulation languages are, in most instances, developed 
and/or supported by computer mainframe vendors or by software houses specializing 
in simulation. Simulation languages encompass such a wide variety of forms and uses 
that early voluntary standardization is unlikely; however, some de facto conventions 
might well be adopted for the Air Force ICAM effort. 



^Languages tentatively identified for detailed consideration are CSSL, CSMP, GASP IV, 
GPSS , and SIMSCRIPT. 



63 



1 . 



Designation : None 



2. Title : Basic Language for implementation of System Software (BLISS) 

3. Maintenance Authority : Digital Equipment Corporation (for official versions); 

Carnegie-Mel Ion University, Dept, of Computer Science (for unofficial versions). 

4. Scope : De facto system implementation programming language standard for the 

Digital Equipment Corp. PDP-10 (BLISS 10) and PDP-11 (BLISS-11) 

5. Relationship to Other Standards : It is assumed that the source is in ASCII. 

6. Competitive Standards : BCPL (and variations, particularly C for the PDP-11); SAIL 

7. Standardization Status : The de facto standard for the language BLISS is embodied in 
the implementations of BLISS-10 and BLISS-11 by Digital Equipment Corp. To date, 
there has been no effort to standardize this language. 

8. Implementation Status : The language was designed and first implemented for the PDP-10 

at Carnegie-Mellon University. It was later adopted by Digital Equipment Corp. 

and has become a supported language under their standard PDP-10 operating system. 

The PDP-11 version was likewise designed and first implemented at Carnegie-Mellon. 

It is now available from Digital Equipment Corp. via a cross compiler, i.e., it 
executes on a PDP-10, producing code for a PDP-11. 

9. Known Manufacturing Uses : None 

10. Known Sources of Information : Digital Equipment Corp., Maynard, MA; Carnegie-Mellon 

University, Dept, of Computer Science, Pittsburgh, PA. 

11 . Probable Sources of Information : 

12. Bibl iograph.y : 

BLISS-10 Programmer's Reference Manual (DEC-1 0-LBRMA-A-D) , Digital Equipment Corp., 
Maynard, MA; 

W.A. Wulf et al . , BLISS Reference Manual: A Basic Language for Implementation of 
System Software for PDP-10, Dept, of Computer Science, Carnegie-Mellon University, 
Pittsburgh, PA. 

13. Comments : Digital has implemented sophisticated FORTRAN compilers using both 
BLISS-10 and BLISS-11 as implementation languages. 



64 



1 . 



Designation : None 



2. Title : PL/S 

3. Maintenance Authority : IBM Corp. 

4. Scope : System implementation language used by IBM for the 360/370 series 

5. Relationship to Other Standards : 

6. Competitive Standards : 

7. Standardization Status : The specification of PL/S has not been released by IBM. 

8. Implementation Status : By implication, it can be assumed that IBM has implemented 

a compiler for PL/S, since much of the system software for the 370 series is written 
in PL/S. However, none of the source code is distributed, since IBM refuses to 
distribute the compiler. 

9. Known Manufacturing Uses : None 

10. Known Sources of Information : IBM Corp., Data Processing Division, 1133 Westchester 
Ave., White Plains, NY 10604. 

11 . Probable Sources of Information : 

1 2 . Bibl iography : 

Guide to PL/S II (Form GC28-6794-0) , IBM Corp., Data Processing Division, 

White Plains, NY; 

Guide to PL/S-Generated Listing (Form GC28-6786-0) , IBM Corp., Data Processing 
Division, White Plains, NY; 

G. Wiederhold and J. Ehrman, Inferred Syntax and Semantics of PL/S, in Proceedings 
of a SIGPLAN Symposium on Languages for Systems Implementation (published as 
SIGPLAN Notices, Volume 6, Number 9, Oct. 1971). 

13. Comments : IBM appears to heavily use PL/S for its own internal system implementations. 
Unless IBM or someone else releases a PL/S compiler for general use, this language 

is of no utility to anyone but IBM. 



65 



1 . 



Designation : None 



2. Title : BCPL and C 

3. Maintenance Authority : BCPL: installation-dependent; C: Bell Telephone Laboratories 

4. Scope: BCPL (Basic Combined Programming Language) is a system implementation 

language. C is also a system implementation language developed as a significantly 
enhanced dialect of BCPL. 

5. Relationship to Other Standards : 

6. Competitive Standards : 

7. Standardization Status : There has been no formal effort to standardize these 

languages. 

8. Implementation Status : BCPL has been implemented on a wide variety of machines. 

The most important implementation of C has been for the DEC PDP-11. Other imple- 
mentations exist for the IBM 360/370 and Honeywell 6000 series. 

9. Known Manufacturing Uses : 

10. Known Sources of Information : C: Dennis Ritchie, Bell Telephone Laboratories, 

Murray Hill, NJ 07974 

1 1 . Probable Sources of Information : 

12. Bib! iography : 

M. Richards, The BCPL Reference Manual (Project MAC Memo M-352-1), M.I.T., 

Cambridge, MA (1968) 

M. Richards, BCPL: A Tool for Compiler Writing and System Programming, Proceedings, 
Spring Joint Computer Conference (1969); 

D. Ritchie, C Reference Manual, Bell Telephone Laboratories , Murray Hill, NJ. 

13. Comments : Outside of a few user communities, BCPL has not been used heavily. The 
primary user community for C is that of PDP-11 UNIX users. The UNIX operating 
system is almost completely written in C, and C is the best supported and most 
heavily used language available on UNIX. 



66 



1 . 



Designation : None 



2. Title : PL/M, PL/M6800, and MPL 

3. Maintenance Authority : Intel Corp. (PL/M for the Intel 8008 and 8080); 

Intermetrics (PL/M6800 for the Motorola 6800); 

Motorola Corp. (MPL for the Motorola 6800) 

4. Scope : All three of these languages are high level system implementation 

languages for 8-bit microprocessors. 

5. Relationship to Other Standards : 

6. Competitive Standards : 

7. Standardization Status : To date, none of these languages has been the subject 

of standardization. However, there has been some effort to make PL/M and PL/M6800 
compatible at the source code level. 

8. Implementation Status : Cross compilers exist for all three of these languages 

and are available through nationwide timesharing services or as FORTRAN programs 
designed to run on a user's IBM 360/370 system. 

9. Known Manufacturing Uses : 

10. Known Sources of Information : 

11. Probable Sources of Information: 



12. Bibliography : 

8008 and 8080 PL/M Programming Manual - Revision A ( MCS-451 -0275-1 OK) , Intel 
Corp., Santa Clara, CA (1975); 

D. Fylstra and R. Gardner, PL/M6800 Language Specification (Report No. IR-161), 
Intermetrics Inc., Cambridge, MA (1975). 

13. Comments : PL/M and PL/M6800 offer an almost completely compatible language for 
programming Intel 8080 and Motorola 6800 microprocessors. MPL for the Motorola 
6800 was not designed to be compatible. However, all three of these languages are 
subset dialects of PL/I and therefore will have a high degree of similarity. 



67 



1 . Designation : None 

2. Title: Composite summary sheet on Artificial Intelligence (AI) Languages 



3. Maintenance Authority : Various developers 

4. Scope: Novel features (new data types and control structures, pattern matching, 

deductive mechanisms, etc.) embedded in programming languages for robotics, automatic 
programming, and the representation of knowledge (see bibliographic citation 12. 

a. below). 

5. Relationship to Other Standards : N/A 

6. Competitive Standards : N/A 

7. Standardization Status : None 

8. Implementation Status : 

9. Known Manufacturing Uses : "... heuristic programming, algebraic manipulation, . . . 

pattern recognition, . . . information retrieval, numerical computation" (see 
bibliographic citation 12. b. below). 

10. Known Sources of Information: See bibliography. 



1 1 . Probable Sources of Information : 

12. Bib! iography : 

a. Bobrow, Daniel G. and Bertram Raphael, New Programming Languages for Artificial 

Intelligence, Computing Surveys, Vol . 6, No. 3, September 1974 (with 
31 bibliographic entries). 

b. Abrahams, Paul W. et. al.. The LISP 2 Programming Language and System, Proc. 

FJCC , Vol. 29, (1966). 

c. SAIL User Manual, Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Memo AIM-204, 

Computer Science Department Report STAN-CS-73-373 , July 1973. 

d. Sammet, Jean E., Programming Languages: History and Fundamentals, 1969. 

13. Comments : "For more than a decade, the list processing and symbol -manipulation lang- 
uages -- such as COMIT, IPL, LISP, SLIP (Bobrow Raphael 1964) -- have been the media 
for almost all AI achievements. Although the effectiveness of research with these 
languages has improved dramatically due primarily to greatly expanded memory sizes 
and new interactive debugging facilities, the languages have remained remarkably 
stable. In recent years, however, new directions for emphasis in AI research — 

such as studies of representation of knowledge, robotics, and automatic programming -- 
have led to a widely felt need for certain rather novel features to be embedded into 
programming languages; and some languages containing several of these features have 
recently been implemented" (see bibliography citation 12. a. above). 



^Languages tentatively identified for detailed consideration are SAIL, PLANNER/CONNIVER, 
QLISP/INTERLISP, P0PLER/P0P-2 , and LISP 2. 



68 



1 . 



Designation : None 



2. Ti tl e : CODASYL Data Base Task Group (DBTG) Specification 

3. Maintenance Authority : CODASYL Data Description Language Committee for the Data 

Definition Language (DDL) portion; CODASYL Programming Language Committee for the 
Data Manipulation Language (DML) portion. 

4. Scope : Proposed standard for data base management systems. The DBTG specification 

includes the DDL and the DML. 

5. Relationship to Other Standards : ANSI COBOL (base for DML specification). 

6. Competitive Standards : ANSI X3/SPARC/DBMS Interim Report; Non-CODASYL Self-Contained 

approaches; Non-CODASYL Host Language approaches; Relational approaches. 

7. Standardization Status : None 

8. Implementation Status : There are commercial data base systems implemented, based 

on the CODASYL specification. While these systems may employ syntax that is 
slightly different from the CODASYL specification, they follow the same basic data 
model. Some of the commercially available systems which are generally deemed to 
be "CODASYL DBTG type" systems are: 

0 DBMS-10 (Data Base Management System-10) developed by Rapidata, Inc.; 
as a Digital Equipment Corporation product runs on the DEC PDP-10. 

° IDMS (Integrated Data Management System) developed by Cullinane Corporation 
runs on IBM 360/370 and on UNIVAC 70. 

° DMS 1100 (Data Management System 1100) developed by Xerox runs on the 
Xerox SIGMA 6, 7, 9 and 560 machines. 

9. Known Manufacturing Uses : Used primarily for business applications such as 

payroll and inventory control. 

10. Known Sources of Information : Chairman, DDLC, CODASYL, Box 124, Monroeville, PA 15146 

11. Probable Sources of Information : Cullinane, Rapidata, DEC, UNIVAC, NBS. 

12. Bibl iography : 

l.a. CODASYL Programming Language Committee, Data Base Task Group Report. Available 
from ACM, April 1971 . 

l.b. CODASYL Data Description Language Committee, CODASYL Data Description Language, 
Journal of Development, U.S. Department of Commerce, NBS, NBS Handbook 113. 
l.c. CODASYL Programming Language Committee, COBOL Journal of Development 1976, 

Chapter 12 - Data Manipulation Language, Section 4 - Subschema Specifications. 

13. Comments : In May 1967, the Conference on Data Systems Languages (CODASYL) formed a 
group called the Data Base Task Group (DBTG). In October 1969, the DBTG produced 

a specification of a data base known as the DBTG Report (l.a.). The report detailed 
the semantics and syntax of a Data Description Language (DDL) and a Data Manipulation 
Language (DML). The DDL is a language for describing a data base. The DML is a 
language which is associated with a host language such as COBOL, FORTRAN, PL/I, 
etc., and which allows the manipulation of the data bases described by the DDL. 



69 



The Data Definition Language was developed with the intent that it would eventually 
become the basis for an industry standard and that many individual host languages 
could interface with implementations of it. A Data Description Language Committee 
was established. This Committee produced a CODASYL Data Description Language Journal 
of Development dated June 1973 (l.b.). 

The data manipulation work was continued under the Programming Language Committee 
with the goal of developing subschemas and a DML specification. A CODASYL COBOL 
Journal of Development which specifies the Data Manipulation Language and subschema for 
COBOL was published in May 1975 (l.c.). Similar specifications for FORTRAN and 
perhaps for PL/ I are still in the working stage. 



70 



1 . 



Designation : None (composite summary sheet) 

2 Title: Composite summary sheet on Self-Contained Data Management Approach 

/ 

3. Maintenance Authority : 

4. Scope: The majority of the commercially available data base management systems 

are of this type. They are widely used by government and industry as a nucleus 
in building special applications for customized data processing work. 

5 . Relationship to Other Standards : COBOL, FORTRAN, PL/I (for procedural language 

interface) . 

6. Competitive Standards : CODASYL DBTG Specification 

7. Standardization Status : None 

8. Implementation Status: There are many operational packages that are commercially 

available. These packages differ in the functions provided. Among the many, 

the following packages are believed to be representative of widely recognized 
and proven products available in the market today. 



Packaqe Name 


Supplier 


Computers 


Initial Installation 


No. of Users 












ADABAS 


Software Ag. 


IBM 360/370 


March 1971 (in Germany) 
Marketed in U.S. since 
early 1972. 


Over 150 as of 
May 1976 


INQUIRE 


Infodata Sys- 
tems Inc. 


IBM 360/370 


1969 


Approximately 
70 as of May 
1976 


MODEL 204 


Computer Corp. 
of America 


IBM 360/370 


1971 


22 as of May 
1976 



System 2000 



MRI Systems Inc. 



IBM 360/370 
UNIVAC 1100 
Series 
CDC 6000 
Series 



July 1970 



Over 100 as of 
May 1976 



9. Known Manufacturing Uses: Current applications are: management information systems, 

inventory control, ecological data bases, personnel information systems, project 
control systems, pharmaceutical use history, health records, petrochemical data base, 
etc. 

10. Known Sources of Information : Datapro Research Corporation, Del ran, NJ 

11. Probable Sources of Information : Specific Vendors of Systems: Software Ag.; Infodata 

Systems, Inc.; Computer Corp. of America; MRI Systems, Inc. 



71 



12 . 



Bib! iography : 



2. a. CODASYL Systems Committee, "Feature Analysis of Generalized Data Base Management 
Systems," May 1971. 

2.b. Datapro Research Corp, "A Buyer's Guide to Data Base Management Systems, "May 1976. 
2.c. Koehr, G. J., et. al . , "Data Management Systems Catalog." MITRE Corp. Report 
MTP-139, Jan. 1973. 



13. Comments : "Self-contained" type of data base management systems is a classification 
distinguished by the CODASYL Systems Committee (2.a.). The key characteristic of the 
self-contained type is that the data definition, data retrieval and data input 
are all provided in such a way that conventional procedural programming is not 
required. 



1 



Data gathered from bibliographic citation 2.b. 



72 



1. Designation : None (composite summary sheet) 

2. Title : Composite summary sheet on Host Language Data Management Approach 

3. Maintenance Authority : 

4. Scope : The majority of host language type data base management systems are based 

on the CODASYL DBTG Specification. However, ImS (Information Management System), 
an IBM product, is of the non-CODASYL host language type. TOTAL, developed by 
Cincom Systems, came out in early 1968 before the CODASYL DBTG Specification; it 
too is a non-CODASYL host language type. The two packages alone account for 
approximately 50% of the current market. 

5. Relationship to Other Standards : COBOL, FORTRAN, PL/I (base for host language) 

6. Competitive Standards : CODASYL DBTG Specification 

7. Standardization Status : 

8. Implementation Status : IMS (Information Management System), developed and marketed 

by IBM, has gone through many evolutions and improvements. The earliest, IMS- I , 
operating on the IBM 360, appeared around 1969 and is based on another product developed 
jointly with North American Rockwell Company called DL/I (Data Language/I), which is 

a data description facility to describe and organize a hierarchically structured 
data base. IMS-I also provides an interface through which programmers can store 
data from the host language (COBOL). In 1971, IMS-VS was released to run on IBM 
360/370s, under the VS (Virtual System) operating system. The IMS data base 
management package is the leading package among IBM 360/370 computer users. It is 
estimated that there were 1,000 installations at year-end 1975 (3. a.). 

TOTAL, developed by Cincom, is widely used and is second to IMS. TOTAL, in its 
initial release in 1968 was primarily a direct access data base management system. 
Facilities were soon added to process DBTG-like sets implemented with chain pointers. 
TOTAL is a host language system which can model the major data stuctures of the DBTG 
specification. It is considered non-CODASYL because Cincom claims TOTAL was imple- 
mented before CODASYL DBTG was published. TOTAL runs on the following machines: 

IBM 360/370, Honeywell 200/2000, UNIVAC Series 70 and 9400/9700, NCR Century Series, 

CDC 6000 Series, and IBM System/3 Model 10 and Model 15. TOTAL had 900 installations 
at year-end 1975 (3. a.). 

9. Known Manufacturing Uses : Used in support of a large number of diverse applications, 

including applications in manufacturing, finance, and process control. 

10. Known Sources of Information : 3. a. International Data Corp., "The Data Base 
Management Software Market on IBM 360/370 Systems," IDC # 1685, (May 1976) 

International Data Corp., 214 Third Ave., Waltham, MA 02154. For IBM information, 
see local representative. For information on TOTAL: Cincom Systems, Inc., 

2300 Montana Ave., Cincinnati, OH 43211 

11. Probable Sources of Information : Government users of IMS package are: Federal 

Reserve Board and Naval Materiel Command Support Activity. Users of TOTAL package 
are: Social Security Administration and Bureau of Labor Statistics. 

12. Bib! iography : None 

13. Comments: 



73 



1 . Designation : None 

2. Title: Composite summary sheet on Relational Data Management Approach 



3. Maintenance Authority : 

4. Scope : It is still being researched within academia. 

5. Relationship to Other Standards : None 

6. Competitive Standards : CODASYL DBTG Specification 

7. Standardization Status : None 

8. Implementation Status : The concepts of n-ary relations as a tool for data base 

management systems dates from a 1970 paper by E.F. Cudd of IBM (4.a.). As yet, 
no large scale implementation exists. There were a number of early projects: 

MACAIMS developed at MIT and RDMS developed at General Motors. A large scale 
prototype data base management system, called System R, is presently under construction 
at IBM Research in San Jose. Another large scale attempt at constructing a relational 
prototype is the INGRES (Interactive Graphics and Retrieval System) of the University 
of California at Berkeley. INGRES is operational on a PDP-11/40 under the UNIX 
operating system. 

There are two commercially-developed data base software packages which claim to 
possess relational characteristics, but these are not considered true relational 
systems: 

MAGNUM, developed by Tymshare, Inc., runs on IBM 360/370. 

NOMAN, developed by National CSS, Inc., also runs on IBM 360/370. 

9. Known Manufacturing Uses : There are no known manufacturing uses of the 

prototype university-based relational systems. Limited uses of the two commercial 
relational systems are: maintenance and inventory data, and invoice processing by a 
utility company. 

10. Known Sources of Information : E.F. Codd, IBM Research Laboratory, San Jose, CA; 

For INGRES System contact: M. Stonebraker, University of California, Berkeley, CA; 
for MAGNUM System contact: Tymshare, 10340 Bubb Road, Cupertino, CA 95014; for 
N0MAN System contact: National CSS, Inc., 300 Westport Ave., Norwalk, CT 06851 

1 1 . Probable Sources of Information : 

12. Bib! iography : 

4. a. Codd, E.F., "A Relational Model of Data For Large Shared Data Banks," 
Communications of the ACM 13.6 (June 1970), pp. 377-397. 

13. Comments: 



74 



1 . Designation : None 

2. Title : Composite summary sheet on Operating $ystems 

3. Maintenance Authority : Various vendors 

4. Scope : The functions of a modern operating system can be divided roughly into: 

1) job control (job and process scheduling and control), 2) storage management 
(allocation of main and secondary memory resources), and 3) file system imple- 
mentation. 

Communication with an operating system is across two interfaces: system calls and 
an operating system command language (OSCL). System calls can be thought of as 
procedure calls to special operating system procedures. They are used in programs 
to request services of the operating system. An operating system command language 
is a self-contained but often rudimentary language for direct communication between 
a user and the operating system. The command language is used to schedule jobs, 
assign files, etc., and to otherwise direct the execution of programs on behalf 
of the user. On some of the more well -designed operating systems, the command 
language exists as a separable part of the system, and thus can be easily 
changed. In fact, some of these systems can support more than one command 
language. 

5. Relationship to Other Standards : Operating systems require a great deal of inter- 

action with hardware interface standards, code standards and language standards. 

6. Competitive Standards : 

7. Standardization Status : There have been some attempts to develop a standard operating 

system command language. These attempts have not succeeded. There appears to be 
little vendor support for these efforts. 

8. Implementation Status : 

9. Known Manufacturing Uses : 

10. Known Sources of Information : Various vendors. 

11 . Probable Sources of Information : 

1 2 . Bib! iography : 

Code, Inc., Standardized Job Control Language: Introduction to SJCL Concepts, 

1971 October 22, (NTIS AD 742 542). 

13. Comments : No standard summary sheets are included in this section because there 
are no standards in this area. Each vendor of operating systems has a unique 
approach to the implementation of the user-system interface. No operating system 
in widespread use can be said to possess sufficient redeeming qualities in its 
user-system interface that acceptance of it as even an ad hoc standard can be 
advocated. In fact, very few vendors use the same user-system interface from one 
generation to another. 



75 



1 . 



Designation : None 



2. Title: Composite summary sheet on Computer Software (Testing and Validation) 

3. Maintenance Authority : COBOL: (U.S. Navy); FORTRAN: (NBS); BASIC (NBS), MUMPS 

(MUMPS Development Committee) 

4. Scope : Test for compiler compliance with 1968 COBOL and 1966 FORTRAN standards, and 

for ANSI proposed Minimal BASIC and MUMPS standards. 

5. Relationship to Other Standards: Complement present or pending standards for COBOL, 

FORTRAN, BASIC and MUMPS. 

6. Competitive Standards : 

7. Standardization Status : COBOL 1968 and FORTRAN 1966 are available; Minimal BASIC 

and MUMPS are pending standards. 

8. Implementation Status: Test data available from Federal Testing Service or NTIS. 

(BASIC) - NTIS & NBS 

9. Known Manufacturing Uses : System procurement and quality control aids. 

10. Known Sources of Information : Mrs. Frances E. Holberton (FORTRAN), Ms. Mabel V. Vickers 
(COBOL). Dr. David E. Gilsinn (BASIC), NBS, (301) 921-3491, Dr. Jack Bowie (MUMPS), 
Massachusetts General Hospital, (617) 726-3937. 

1 1 . Probable Sources of Information : 

12. Bib! iography : Federal Property Management Regulations 101 -32. 1305a, Validation of 

COBOL Compilers; NBS Special Publication 399, Vol . 1-3 "NBS FORTRAN Test Programs." 
NBS-IR (in draft) "Proposed NBS Minimal BASIC Test Programs." MDC/29, MUMPS 
Validation Program User Guide. 

13. Comments : COBOL testing is used in acquisition of compilers for the Federal Govenment. 



1 . Designation : None 

2. Title : Numerical Testing and Validation of Mathematical Software 

3. Maintenance Authority : None, although some certification of algorithms and 

programs is given in the ACM algorithms collection and both IMSL (International 
Mathematical and Statistical Libraries, Inc.) and Argonne National Laboratory 
have produced and continue to test specialized mathematical libraries. 

4. Scope : To define methods and guidelines to evaluate the numeric properties (such 

as accuracy) and ascertain this domain of mathematical software (that is, identify 
clearly the class of problems that a program solves). Another measure addressed 

is the speed of the programs. These qualities are referred to as the perform- 
ance evaluation of mathematical software. 

5. Relationship to Other Standards : Error analysis of mathematical software depends 

strongly on numeric representations. This subject is addressed from the point 

of view of character strings by ANSI X3. 42-1975, American National Standard 
for the representation of numeric values in character strings for information 
interchange. Extrinsic mathematical functions routine capability is specified 
by the proposed ANS FORTRAN, BSR X3.9 and proposed ANS Minimal BASIC, BSR X3.60. 

6. Competitive Standards : There are no standards for evaluations of mathematical 

software although there are a number of competitive approaches to evaluating the 
effect of error propagations in mathematical software (see comments below). 

7. Standardization Status : None, although there is a recently organized I FI PS Working 

Group on Numerical Software (WG 2.5). The ACM SIGNUM, SIGMAP and SIGSAM are 
concerned with mathematical software. 

8. Implementation Status : Ad hoc evaluation tools have been used by IMSL and Argonne. 

IBM has implemented in S/360 a quality mathematical function library developed 

at the University of Chicago. UNIVAC has also used a quality evaluation methodology 
to enhance the accuracy of its mathematics libraries. 

9. Known Manufacturing Uses : To develop and evaluate the mathematical function 

software libraries peripheral to the programming languages FORTRAN, ALGOL, PL/ I, 
BASIC, etc. IMSL uses evaluation techniques to generate quality mathematical 
software for engineering and scientific use. 

10. Known Sources of Information : David E. Gilsinn, NBS, (301) 921-3491; 

Dan Lozier, NBS, (301) 921-2631 . 

11. Probable Sources of Information: IMSL, Argonne National Lab., Jet Propulsion 

Lab. 

12. Bib! iography : This bibliography is by no means exhaustive, but it covers a fair 

sampling of the literature dealing with tools and approaches to quality testing. 

(1) W. J. Cody, "The Evaluation of Mathematical Software," Program Test Methods , 

Ed., William C. Hetzel , Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ (1973), p. 121. 

(2) C. T. Fike, Computer Evaluation of Mathematical Functions , Prentice-Hall, 

Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ, (1968). 

(3) H. Kuki , "Mathematical Function Subprograms for Basic System Libraries -- 
Objectives, Constraints and Trade-Offs," Mathematical Software , Academic 
Press, NY, pp. 187-199. 



77 



(4) D. W. Lozier, L. C. Maximon, and W. L. Sadowski, "Performance Testing of a 
FORTRAN Library of Mathematical Functions Routines -- A Case Study in the 
Application of Testing Techniques," Journ. of Res., NBS, B. Math. Sci . , 

Vol . 77B, Nos. 3 & 4, July - December 1973. 

13. Comments: There are a number of proposed approaches to quality evaluation of 
mathematical software. There has been no concerted effort to determine which 
methods are appropriate to which programs. First, a straightforward approach 
to determining accuracy is to run a program on a standard set of problems and to 
compare the computed results against the known results. For certain problems 
this method can give meaningful and useful measures of the error generated within 
the routine. In particular, the accuracy of mathematical function routines is 
frequently determined by using the comparison approach. This method of analysis 
is sometimes called forward error analysis. Second, when a solution of a problem 
involves arrays of numbers, then another approach to quality evaluation is to show 
that the computed results are the exact solutions to a perturbation of the original 
problems and to measure that perturbation. This method is sometimes called 
backward error analysis. Third, the domain of the problem is evaluated. That is, 
the problems that a particular piece of mathematical software solves are determined. 
This method is related to method one, but requires a classification and codification 
of problem sets. Fourth, another approach to studying error propagations is 
statistical in the sense that the errors incurred for each operation are assumed 
to be random variables with some specified distribution. The error analysis can 
then proceed, using the tools of probability theory in order to determine the resulting 
error distributions, by computing the individual error random variables. Finally 
for some problems a-priori error bounds can be estimated by the use of inequalities 
and bounds for the accumulated error at each step of a program. 



78 



1 . 



Designation : FIPS PUB 38 



2. Title : Guidelines for Documentation of Computer Programs and Automated Data Systems 

3. Maintenance Authority : NBS (FIPS TG 14) 

4. Scope : These software guidelines provide a basis for determining the content 

and extent of documentation for computer programs and automated data systems. 

5. Relationship to Other Standards : FIPS PUB 30 (subset) 

6. Competitive Standards : None 

7. Standardization Status : 

8. Implementation Status : Published on Feb. 15, 1976. 

9. Known Manufacturing Uses : These documentation guidelines are applicable to all 

computer software development and use applications. 

10. Known Sources of Information : James Gillespie, USN, FIPS TG 14 Chairman, (202) 

695-0680; Thomas Kurihara, Department of Agriculture, FIPS TG 14 Vice-Chairman, 

(202) 447-6261; Bea Marron, NBS, FIPS TG 14 Executive Secretary, (301) 921-3491 

11 . Probable Sources of Information : 

12. Bib! iography : 

FIPS PUB 38, February 1975, Guidelines for Documentation of Computer Programs and 
Automated Data Systems 

Automated Data System Documentation Standards Manual, Department of Defense Manual 
4120.17-M, December 1972 

Computer Program Documentation Guideline, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 
NHB-241 1.1, July 1971. 

13. Comments : Documentation of computer software provides information to support the 
effective management of ADP resources and to facilitate the interchange of information. 
It serves to: 

° Provide managers with technical documents to review at the significant develop- 
ment milestones, to determine that requirements have been met and that resources 
should continue to be expended. 

° Record technical information to allow coordination of later development and use/ 
modification of the software. 

° Facilitate understanding among managers, developers, programmers, operators, 
and users by providing information about maintenance, training, changes, and 
operation of the software. 

° Inform potential users of the functions and capabilities of the software, so 
that they can determine whether it will serve their needs. 

These guilelines were prepared to improve the quality and consistency of software 
documentation. 



79 



1 . 

2 . 

3. 

4. 

5. 

6 . 

7. 

8 . 

9. 

10 . 

11 . 

12 . 



13. 



1 

- 

i 

Designation : FIPS PUB 30, Standard Form 185 

Title : Software Summary for Describing Computer Programs and Automated Data Systems 

Maintenance Authority : MBS 

Scope : This standard software summary form is used in documenting summaries or 

abstracts of programs and/or automated data systems that are developed or acquired 
by Federal departments and agencies. 

Relationship to Other Standards : FIPS PUB 38 (superset) 

Competitive Standards : None, but ANSI X3K7 was organized in October 1975 to develop 

a computer program abstract. 

Standardization Status : Published June 30, 1974 

Implementation Status : On Feb. 25, 1976, a Federal Property Management Regulation 

was announced which requires the use of this standard form for reporting "common 
use software" to a new Federal Software Exchange Center. 

Known Manufacturing Use s: This documentation standard is applicable to all computer 

software development and use applications. 

Known Sources of Information : James Gillespie, FIPS TG 14 Chairman; Thomas Kurihara, 

FIPS TG 14 Vice-Chariman; Bea Marron, FIPS TG 14 Executive Secretary. 

Probable Source s of Information : 

Bib! iography : FIPS PUB 30, June 1974, Software Summary for Describing Computer 
Programs and Automated Data Systems 

Comments : This standard, a one-page form with instructions on the back, is intended 
for succinctly describing computer programs and automated data systems for identi- 
fication, reference, and dissemination purposes. 



80 



1 . 



Designation : FIPS PUB 24 



2. Title : Flowchart Symbols and their Usage in Information Processing 

3. Maintenance Authority : NBS (ICST) 

4. Scope : This publication establishes standard flowchart symbols and specifies 

their use in the preparation of flowcharts in documenting information processing 
systems . 

5. Relationship to Other Standards : Same as ANSI X3.5 - 1970, American National 

Standard Flowchart Symbols and their Usage in Information Processing. 

6. Competitive Standards : None 

7. Standardization Status : Published June 30, 1973. The ANSI standard was approved 

Sept. 1, 1970 as a revision of USA Standard X3.5 - 1968. 

8. Implementation Status : This standard applies to any Federal information processing 

operation where symbolic representation is desirable to document the sequence of 
operations and the flow of data and paperwork. 

9. Known Manufacturing Uses : Applicable for all systems and software documentation. 

10 . Known Sources of Information : Mr. Harry S. White, Jr, NBS, (301) 921-3157. 

11 . Probable Sources of Information : 

12 . Bib! iography : FIPS PUB 24, June 1973, Flowchart Symbols and their Usage in Information 

13. Comments : A FIPS Jiffy Template (#673) of Flowchart Symbols, which conforms to 
FIPS PUB 24, is now available. 



81 



ANNOTATION 

FOR THE ADDITION OF 
DESCRIPTIVE COMMENTS 
OR EXPLANATORY NOTES 
AS CLARIFICATION 


AUXILIARY OPERATION 

□ 

OFFLINE OPERATIONS 
PERFORMED ON EQUIPMENT 
NOT UNDER DIRECT CON- 
TROL OF THE CENTRAL 
PROCESSOR. 


CONNECTOR 

O' 

A JUNCTION IN THE 
LINE OF FLOW 


CORE 

I/O FUNCTI 
THE MEDIU 
NETIC CORE 
AUXILIARY 
SYMBOL) 


DN IN WHICH 
VI IS MAG- 
(USE 

OPERATION 


DECISION 

O 

POINTS IN A PROGRAM 
WHERE SEVERAL PATHS 
MAY BE POSSIBLE. BASED 
ON VARIABLE CONDITIONS 


DISPLAY 

c 

I/O FUNCTlOf 
THE INFORM 
DISPLAYED F 
USE AT TIME 
CESSING. 


D 

IN WHICH 
UTION IS 
OR HUMAN 
OF PROC- 


DOCUMENT 

CO 

I/O FUNCTION IN WHICH 
THE MEDIUM IS A 
DOCUMENT 


EXTRACT 

A 

REMOVAL OF ONE OR 
MORE SPECIFIC SETS OF 
ITEMS FROM A SINGLE 
SET OF ITEMS. 


INPUT/OUTPUT 

n 

MAKING AVAILABLE 
INFORMATION FOR 
PROCESSING OR RE- 
CORDING PROCESSED 
INFORMATION 


MAGNETIC DIS 

S' — 


I/O FUNCTION 
MEDIUM IS M 
DISK 


K 

IN WHICH 
AGNETIC 


MAGNETIC DRUM 

— “A 

i l 

I/O FUNCTION IN WHICH 
MEDIUM IS MAGNETIC 
DRUM 


MAGNETIC TAPE 

Q 

I/O FUNCTION IN WHICH 
THE MEDIUM IS 
MAGNETIC TAPE 


MANUAL INPUT 

1 1 

I/O FUNCTION IN WHICH 
THE INFORMATION IS 
ENTERED MANUALLY AT 
THE TIME OF PROC- 
CESSING. 


MANUAL OPERATION 

ANY OFFLINE PROCESS 
GEARED TO THE SPEED 
OF A HUMAN 8EING 


MERGE 

V 

COMBINING TWO OR 
MORE SETS INTO ONE 
SET 


OFFLINE STORAGE 

V 

REPRESENTS ANY 
OFFLINE STORAGE OF 
INFORMATION REGARD- 
LESS OF THE MEDIUM 


ONLINE STORAGE 

a 

REPRESENTS AN I/O 
FUNCTION UTILIZING 
MASS STORAGE THAT 
CAN BE ACCESSED 
ON LINE 


PREDEFINED 

A NAMED PR 
SISTING OF C 
OPERATIONS 
GRAM STEPS. 
ELSEWHERE. 
(SUBROUTINE 


ROC ESS 

DCESS CON- 
NE OR MORE 
OR PRO- 
SPECIFIED 


PREPARATION 

O 

A GROUP OF INSTRUC- 
TIONS WHICH MODIFY. 
UPDATE. CORRECT OR 
OTHERWISE CHANGE 
THE PROGRAM 


PROCESS 

REPRESEN1 
PROCESS 0 
A DEFINEC 
OR GROUP 
TIONS 


■S THE 

F EXECUTING 
OPERATION 
OF OPERA- 


PUNCHED CARD 

( 

I/O FUNCTION IN WHICH 
THE MEDIUM IS PUN- 
CHED CARDS INCLUDING 
MARK SENSE CARDS. 
STUB CARDS 


PUNCHED TAPE 

I/O FUNCTION IN WHICH 
THE MEDIUM IS 
PUNCHED TAPE 


SORT 

ARRANGING 

/ \ A SET 
/ \ INTO A 

l J PARTICULAR 

\ / SEQUENCE 

V (USE EXTRACT 

AND MERGE) 


TERMINAL 

( ) 

A POINT AT WHICH 
INFORMATION CAN 
ENTER OR LEAVE 



82 






1. Designation : Data Element Standards (composite summary sheet) 

FIPS PUB 4 - Calendar Date 

FIPS PUB 5-1 - States and Outlying Areas of the' United States 

FIPS PUB 62 - Counties and County Equivalents of the States of the United States 

FIPS PUB 8-4 - Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas 

FIPS PUB 10-1 - Countries, Dependencies, and Areas of Special Sovereignty 

FIPS PUB 19 - Guidelines for Registering Data Codes 

2. Title : 

3. Maintenance Authority : NBS 

4. Scope : Data Element Representations and Codes 

5. Relationship to Other Standards : (See individual publications) 

6. Competitive Standards : 

7. Standardization Status : (See individual publications) 

8. Implementation Status : (See individual publications) 

9. Known Manufacturing Uses : 

10. Known Sources of Information : Mr. Harry S. White, Jr., NBS, (301) 921-3157 

11 . Probable Sources of Information : 

12. Bibl iography : (See individual publications) 

13. Comments : These data elements are not directly relevant to CAM; on the other hand, 

if any of these data elements are utilized in a CAM system, the standard formats 

should be followed to allow transferability. In addition, these standards offer 
models for standardizing the data elements that are directly relevant to CAM. 



83 



I 

1 

I 

i 

1. Designation: FIPS PUB 1 1 /ANSI X3. 12-1970 

2. Ti tie : Vocabulary for Information Processing 

3. Maintenance Authority : NBS 

4. Scope : This Vocabulary is a reference document for general use throughout the 

Federal Government to help promote a common understanding of information processing 
activities. 

5. Relationship to Other Standards: Same as ANSI X3. 12-1970 

6. Competitive Standards : None known. 

7. Standardization Status : Published Dec. 1, 1970. The ANSI Standard was approved 

Feb. 18, 1970 as a revision of U.S.A. Standard X3. 12-1966. 

8. Implementation Status ; 

9. Known Manufacturing Uses : Applicable to all information processing activities. 

10. Known Sources of Information : Mr. Harry S. White, Jr., NBS, (301) 921-3157; 

Ms. Josephine Walkowicz, NBS, (301) 921-3485. 

1 1 . Probable Sources of Information : 

12. Bib! iography : 

13. Comments : An "American National Dictionary of Information Processing" will be issued 
as an ANSI Technical Report on or about October 1, 1976. 



84 



1 . 



Designation : ANSI X8. 1-1968/ISO 841 -1 974/EIA RS-267-A-1 967/NAS 938-1962 



2. Title : Axis and Motion Nomenclature for Numerically Controlled Machines 

3. Maintenance Authority : EIA EI-31 ; IS0/TC97/SC8 

4. Scope : Hardware Standard. This standard defines axis and motion nomenclature for 

numerically controlled machines. 

5. Relationship to Other Standards : Definitions of terms (in the ANSI/EIA standard) 

are in accordance with EIA Automation Bulletin 3B. 

6. Competitive Standards : 

7. Standardization Status : This standard was approved as NAS 938 in June 1959 and 

revised by NAS in February 1963. EIA RS-267 was approved in July 1962 and was revised 
in June 1967 as RS-267-A which was approved as ANSI X8.1 in March 1968. ISO R841 was 
approved in 1968 and reissued as ISO 841 in July 1974. 

8. Implementation Status : Widely used in numerical control equipment. 

9. Known Manufacturing Uses : Widely used in numerical control applications to drafting 

machines, plotters, and machine tools. 

10. Known Sources of Information : Mr. A. M. Wilson, EIA, (202) 659-2200 

11 . Probable Sources of Information : NMTBA, AIA 

12. Bibliography : ANSI X8. 1-1968/ISO 841/1 974/EIA RS-267-A-1 967/NAS 938-1962, Axis and 

Motion Nomenclature for Numerically Controlled Machines 

13. Comments : This standard appears to have been developed first as National Aerospace 

Standard NAS 938-1959, and then modified into EIA, ANSI, and ISO standards. 



85 



1 . 



Designation : ANSI X3. 42-1975 



2. Title: American National Standard for the Representation of Numeric Values in 

Character Strings for Information Interchange 

3. Maintenance Authority : ANSI X3L5 

4. Scope : This standard specifies the syntax of the elements of three sets of 

character strings which are decimal positional representations of numeric values 
for use in the interchange of numeric values between independent data processing 
systems and products. This standard also provides guidance for developers of 
programming standards and implementors of programming products. 

5. Relationship to Other Standards : When used to represent all numeric values recorded 

on storage media or transmitted on data channels conforming to the appropriate 
American National Standards, would ensure that any recipient of a representation of 
a number attributes the same value to it as the originator, whether or not they are 
operating in the same system, programming language, or architecture. 

6. Competitive Standards : None 

7. Standardization Status : Standard published Aug. 4, 1975, by ANSI. This standard 

is in the process of international standardization by ISO. 

8. Implementation Status : All standard programming languages (PL/I, FORTRAN, COBOL, 

BASIC, MUMPS) either conform to this standard or are being revised during their current 
revision cycle to conform to it. 

9. Known Manufacturing Uses : All data files that are used by a different programming 

language than produced them and all data files that are applied on a different 
computer system or computer architecture. 

10. Known Sources of Information : Mrs. Frances E. Holberton, NBS, (301) 921-3491; 

Mr. William F. Hanrahan, X3 Secretary. 

1 1 . Probable Sources of Information : 

12. Bib! iography : ANSI X3. 42-1975 

13. Comments: 



86 



1 . 



Designation : MEDIA 



2. Title : Punched Cards (80-column "IBM" Type) 

3. Maintenance Authority : NBS/ANSI/ ISO/EIA 

4. Scope : Card stock, card and hole dimensions, Hollerith coding 

5. Relationship to Other Standards : 



ISO Recoumendation 
or Draft Recommendation 



Related National 
Standard 



Related Federal 
Standard (FIPS) 



ISO 1679 Representation of ISO 7-Bit 



X3 . 26-1969 Hollerith Punched 
Card Code 



FIPS PUB 14 Hollerith Punched 
Card Code 



Coded Character Set in 12- 
Row Punched Cards 



ISO 1681 Specifications for Unpunched 
Paper Cards 



X3. 11-1969 Specification for 
General Purpose Paper Cards 
for Information Processing 



ISO 1682 Demensions and Locations of 



X3. 21-1967 Rectangular Holes 
in 12-Row Punched Cards 



FIPS PUB 13 Rectangular Holes 
in 12-Row Punched Cards 



Rectangular Punched Holes 
in 80 -Column Punched 
Paper Cards 



6. Competitive Standards : 

7. Standardization Status : Summarized in 5 above. 

8. Implementation Status : Widely implemented in IBM and other computer installations. 

9. Known Manufacturing Uses : 

10. Known Sources of Information : Mr. H. F. Ickes, IBM, (914) 463-9779 

11. Probable Sources of Information: Mr. Robert M. Brown, Vice-Chairman of ANSI X3, 
CBEMA, (202) 466-2288. 

12. Bibl iography : See 5 above. 

13. Comments : Hollerith cards have 80 columns and 12 rows of rectangular holes. 

They are not compatible with the round hole 90-column cards formerly marketed 
by UNIVAC, nor with the 96-column cards introduced by IBM with the System 3. 



87 



Designation : MEDIA 



1 . 

2. Title : Magnetic Tape (1/2 inch, 9 track, Digital) 

3. Maintenance Authority : NBS/ANSI/ ISO/ EIA 

4. Scope : Unrecorded tape stock, recording formats, Lit densities, coding, hubs, 

reel s . 



5. Relationship to Other Standards : 



ISO Recommendation 
or Draft Recommendation 


Related National 
Standard 


Related Federal 
Standard (FIPS) 


ISO R961 


Implementation of the 6 and 
7-Bit Coded Character Sets 
on 7-Track 12.7 mm (1/2 in) 
Magnetic Tape. 






ISO 962 


Implementation of the 7-Bit 
Coded Character Set on 9- 
Track, 12.7 mm (1/2 in) 
Magnetic Tape. 






ISO R1858 


General Purpose Hubs and 
Reels with 76 mm (3 in) 
Centrehole for Magnetic 
Tape Used in Interchange 
Information Applications 


RS-346 Type A Hubs and Reels 
and Magnetic Tape 




ISO R1859 


Un recorded Magnetic Tapes for 
Instrumentation Applications 
— General Dimensional Re- 
qui rements 






ISO R1860 


Precision Reels for Magnetic 
Tape Used in Interchange 
Instrumentation Applica- 
tions. 






ISO R186I 


7-Track 8 rpmm (200 rpi) 
Magnetic Tape for Infor- 
mation Interchange. 






ISO R1862 


9-Track 8 rpmm (200 rpi) 
Magnetic Tape for Infor- 
tion Interchange. 


X3. 14-1973 Recorded Magnetic 
Tape for Information Inter- 
change (200 CPI, NRZI) 




ISO RS1863 


9-Track 32 rpmm (800 rpi) 
Magnetic Tape for Infor- 
mation Interchange. 


X3. 22-1973 Recorded Magnetic 
Tape for Information Inter- 
change (200 CPI, NRZI) 


FIPS PUB 3-1 Recorded Mag- 
netic Tape for Information 
Interchange (800 CPI, NRZI) 


ISO R1864 


Unrecorded Magnetic Tape for 
Information Interchange, 

8 and 32 rpmm (200 and 
800 rpi ) , NRZI , and 63 
rpmm (1600 rpi), Phase- 
Encoded. 


X3. 40-1973 Unrecorded Mag- 
netic Tape for Information 
Interchange (9-Track 200 
and 800 CPI, NRZI, and 
1600 CPI, P.E.) 




ISO 2690 


Unrecorded Magnetic Tape for 
Instrument Appl ications-- 
Physical Properties and Test 
Methods. 






ISO 3788 


9-Track, 64 rpmm (1600 rpi) 
Magnetic Tape for Information 
Interchange. 


X3. 39-1973 Recorded Magnetic 
Tape for Information Inter- 
change (1600 CPI, P.E.) 


FIPS PUB 25 Recorded Magnetic 
Tape for Information Interchange 
(1600 CPI, Phase Encoded) 






X3. 54-1976 Recorded Magnetic 
Tape for Information Inter- 
change (6250 CPI, GCR) 




SRM 3200 


is used internationally. 


SRM 3200 is used nationally. 


Standard Reference Material 3200, 
Secondary Standard Magnetic Tape 
(Computer Amplitude Reference) 
(Sold by NBS) . 



88 



6. Competitive Standards : 

7. Standardization Status : Summarized in 5 above. , 

8. Implementation Status : Widely implemented in computers. 

9. Known Manufacturing Uses : 

10. Known Sources of Information: Mr. John L. Little, NBS, (301) 921-3723; 

Mr. Sidney B. Geller, NBS, (301 ) 921-3723 

11. Probable Sources of Information: Mr. Robert M. Brown, Vice-Chairman of ANSI 

X3 , CBEMA, (202) 466-2288. 

12. Bibl iography : See 5 above. 

13. Comments : There are no ANSI or Federal standards for the 7-track tapes shown 
in 5 above. 



89 



1. Designation : FIPS PUB 25/ANSI X3. 39-1973 

2. Title : Recorded Magnetic Tape for Information Interchange (1600 CPI, Phase Encoded) 

3. Maintenance Authority : ANSI X3B1 

4. Scope : Hardware Standard. This standard specifies the recorded characteristics 

of 9-track, one-half inch wide magnetic computer tape, including the data format for 
implementing the Federal Standard Code for Information Interchange (FIPS 1) 

on magnetic tape media. 

5. Relationship to Other Standards : See FIPS PUB 12-2, pages 17-18 under "Media, 

Magnetic Tape" for the relationship to 16 other standards dealing with 
magnetic tape. Also ANSI BSR X3.54 (6250 CPI). 

6. Competitive Standards : All 7-track magnetic tape codes. All magnetic tape codes 

in use prior to 1967. EBCDIC is widely recorded on 9-track magnetic tapes, and such 
tapes are similar except for the coding. 

7. Standardization Status : Magnetic tape standards were first approved in 1967 and 

have been augmented and updated ever since. 

8. Implementation Status : With ASCII coding, as specified in the ANSI magnetic tape 

standards, these standard tapes are not nearly as widely used as similar tapes with 
EBCDIC coding, because of the prevalence of IBM System 360 and 370 machines using 
EBCDIC tapes. 

9. Known Manufacturing Uses : Wherever manufacturing uses magnetic tapes. 

10. Known Sources of Information: Mr. Michael D. Hogan and Mr. John L. Little, NBS, 

(301) 921-3723. 

11. Probable Sources of Information : IBM, Honeywell, UNIVAC, Burroughs. 

12. Bibliography : FIPS PUB 25/ANSI X3. 39-1973; FIPS PUB 12-2, pages 17-18. 

13. Comments : There have never been any ANSI standards for 7-track magnetic tape. The 
9-track standards are identical to IBM 360/370 tapes except that the coding in the 
standards is specified as ASCII instead of EBCDIC. The 9-track tape was the 

first 8-bit environment in which 7-bit ASCII was embedded. The technique is to make 



the high order bit a "zero" bit when 


the 


other 


7 bits 


are 


ASCII 


bi ts . 


Parity is 


always odd. 


















Relationships in 


9-Track Magnetic 


Tape 










Track No., ANSI X3. 22-1967 (FIPS 3) 


4 


7 


6 5 


3 


9 


1 


8 


2 


Environment (8 information bits) 


P 


E 8 


E 7 E 6 


E 5 


E 4 


E 3 


E 2 


E 1 


ASCII (FIPS 1) Bits (high to low) 


P 


Z 


b 7 b 6 


b 5 


>4 


b 3 


> 2 


b l 


IBM EBCDIC Bit Numbers (high to low) 


P 


0 


1 2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


Binary Weight (unpacked) 


P 


2 7 


2 6 ^ 5 


2 4 


2 3 


2 2 


2 1 


2° 


Binary Weight (packed) 


P 


2 3 


2 2 2 1 


2° 


2 3 


2 2 


2 1 


2° 


Packed Numeric Digit Order 


P 




High 






Low 







Note that the ASCII low-order bit is b,, and the EBCDIC low-order bit is bit 7. The 
packed numeric formats are not standardized. A more complex 10-character, 90-bit 
Group Encoding Scheme is employed on 6250 bpi magnetic tape. 



90 



1. Designation : ANSI BSR X3.48 

2. Title : Magnetic Tape Cassette for Information Interchange (Co-Panar, 3.81 mm 

(0.105 in), 32 bpmm (800 bpi ) , PE) 

l 

3. Maintenance Authority : ANSI X3B5 

4. Scope : Hardware Standard. This standard specifies the physical, magnetic, and 

recorded characteristics for a 3.81 millimeter magnetic tape cassette in order 

to provide for data interchange between information processing systems at a recording 
density of 32 bits per millimeter using phase encoding techniques. 

5. Relationship to Other Standards : ISO DIS 3407 (technical deviations, probably 

compatible); ECMA-34, 1973 (technical deviations, probably compatible) 

6. Competitive Standards : 

7. Standardization Status : Final ANSI approval is pending and publication date is 

estimated to be August 1976. Designation will be ANSI X3. 48-1976. 

8. Implementation Status : The ANSI compatible cassette has been implemented widely 

in communication terminals, P0S terminals, intelligent terminals, and minicomputers. 

It is used in General Electric Terminet 300; Hazeltine 2000, 3000, 5000; Interdata 
74; Memorex 1280; 01ivetti-P602; Sycor-340E, 310; TI-700 Series; and UNIVAC 
Uni scope equipments. 

9. Known Manufacturing Uses : The ANSI cassette is used as a data storage device 

in data processing systems designed for scientific, business, and industrial 
applications. 

10. Known Sources of Information : Mr. Raymond C. Smith, 3M Company, Chairman of ANSI X3B5, 
(612) 733-6297; Mr. Michael D. Hogan, NBS, Member of ANSI X3B5, (301) 921-3723; 

Mr. William F. Hanrahan, CBEMA, Secretary of ANSI X3, (202) 466-2288. 

11. Probable Sources of Information : ANSI X3B5 Membership List (available from CBEMA) 

12. Bibliography : ANSI BSR X3.48 

13. Comments : It is anticipated that ANSI X3. 48-1976 will be available by August 1976. 

A FIPS PUB adopting the requirements of ANSI X3. 48-1 976 has been drafted for Federal 
and public review. 



91 



1 . 



Designation : ANSI BSR X3.56 



2. Title: Magnetic Tape Cartridge for Information Interchange, 4 Track, 0.250 inch 

(6.30 mm), 1600 bpi (63 bpmm), Phase Encoded. 

3. Maintenance Authority : ANSI X3B5 

4. Scope : Hardware Standard. This standard specifies the recorded characteristics 

for 0.250 inch magnetic tape cartridge in order to provide for data interchange 
between information processing systems at a recording density of 1600 bits per inch 
using phase encoding techniques. 

5. Relationship to Other Standards : ANSI BSR X3.55 (base); ISO DIS 4057 (technical 

deviations, probably compatible); ECMA-46, 1976 (technical deviations, probably 
compatible) 

6. Competitive Standards : 

7. Standardization Status : Final ANSI approval is pending and publication date is 

estimated to be late 1976. Designation will be ANSI X3. 56-1976. 

8. Implementation Status : The ANSI compatible cartridge has been chosen for use in 

many minicomputers and communication terminals. It is used in the Three Phoenix 
TCT-300, the Kennedy Co. 4344/45/46 digital cartridge recorders, and the Mohawk 
Data Sciences 2021/2022 cartridge tape drive, for example. 

9. Known Manufacturing Uses : The ANSI compatible cartridge is used as a data storage 

device in data processing systems designed for scientific, business, and industrial 
appl i cations. 

10. Known Sources of Information: Raymond C. Smith, 3M Company, Chairman of ANSI X3B5 

(612) 733-6297; Michael D. Hogan, NBS, Member of ANSI X3B5, (301) 921-3723; 

Mr. William F. Hanrahan, CBEMA, Secretary of ANSI X3, (202) 466-2288. 

11. Probable Sources of Information : ANSI X3B5 Membership List (available from CBEMA) 

12. Bibliography : ANSI BSR X3.56; ANSI BSR X3.55 

13. Comments : ANSI BSR X3.55, Unrecorded Magnetic Tape Cartridge for Information 

Interchange, 0.250 inch (6.30 mm), 1600 bpi (63 bpmm), Phase Encoded, contains 

the mechanical and magnetic requirements for the 0.250 inch magnetic tape cartridge. 
It supports ANSI BSR X3.56 and will be published concurrently. 



92 



1. Desi gnation : MEDIA 

2. Title : Paper tape (one inch, 8-track) 

3. Maintenance Authority : NBS/ ANSI/ ISO 

4. Scope : Paper stock, tape and hole dimensions, coding, reels, rolls 



5. Relationship to Other Standards : 



ISO Recommendation 
or Draft Recommendation 


Related National 
Standard 


Related Federal 
Standard (FIPS) 


ISO 1113 Representation of 6 and 7-Bit 
Coded Character Sets on 
Punched Tape 


X3. 6-1965 Perforated Tape Code 
for Information Interchange 


FIPS PUB 2 Perforated Tape 
Code for Information Interchange 


ISO 1154 Dimensions for Punched Paper 
Tape for Data Interchange 


X3. 18-1967 One-Inch Perforated 
Paper Tape for Information 
Interchange 


FIPS PUB 26 One-Inch Perforated 
Paper Tape for Information 
Interchange 




X3. 19-1967 Eleven-Sixteenths 
Inch Perforated Paper Tape 
for Information Interchange 




ISO 1729 Properties of Unpunched 
Paper Tape 


X3. 29-1971 Specifications for 
Properties of Unpunched Oiled 
Paper Perforator Tape 






X3. 20-1967 Take-Up Reels for 
One-Inch Perforated Tape 
for Information Interchange 


FIPS PUB 27 Take-Up Reels for 
One-Inch Perforated Tape for 
Information Interchange 


ISO 2195 Data Interchange on Rolled 
Up Punched Paper Tape-- 
General Requirements 






6. Competitive Standards: 






7. Standardization Status: 


Summarized in 5 above. 




8. Implementation Status: Widely implemented in minicomputers 

certain other computer terminals. 


, teletype machines. 


9. Known Manufacturing Uses: 
tools. 


: Widely used to drive numerically 


controlled machine 


10. Known Sources of Information: Mr. John L. Little, NBS, (301 


) 921-3723 


11. Probable Sources of Information: Teletype Corporation 





12. Bib! iography : See 5 above. 

13. Comments : Some tapes contain Mylar plastic to resist tearing. Dimensions of such 
tapes are the same as for paper tapes. Dye is used in some tapes to improve 

optical reading of the holes. The 11/16 inch width of ANSI X3. 19-1967 tape accommodates 
only 5 tracks for communications in "Baudot" 5-bit code. 



93 



NBS-1 14A (REV. 7-73) 



U.S. DEPT. OF COMM. 

BIBLIOGRAPHIC DATA 
SHEET 



1. PUBLIC A I ION OK RL PORT NO. 

[IBS I R 76-1094 (R) 



2. Gov’t Accession 
No. 



4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE: 

STANDARDS FOR COMPUTER AIDED MANUFACTURING 
Second Interim Report 



3. Recipient’s Accession Ni 



5. Publication Date 

October 1976 



6. Performing Organization Code 

600.20 



7. AUTHOR(S) 



Dr. John M. Evans, Jr., et. al 



8. Performing Organ. Report No. 



9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 

NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS 
DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20234 



10. Project/Task/Work Unit No. 

6007404 



11. Contract/Grant No. 



12. Sponsoring Organization Name and Complete Address ('Street, City, State, ZIP) 

Manufacturing Technology Division 
Air Force Materials Laboratory 
Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433 



13. Type of Report & Period 
Covered 

Second Interim 



14. Sponsoring Agency Code 



15. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 



16. ABSTRAC T (A 200-word or less factual summary of most significant information. If document includes a significant 
bibliography or literature survey, mention it here.) 

This report identifies and evaluates those existing and potential 
standards which will be useful to the Air Force in the development 
and implementation of integrated computer aided manufacturing (ICAM) 
systems. Such systems, when implemented by the Air Force and by Air 
Force contractors, will increase productivity in discrete part batch 
manufacturing by several thousand percent. The use and importance 
of standards are considered in the context of CAM systems. Since the 
Air Force will develop the detailed ICAM architecture after this study 
is complete, existing system concepts and architectures are examined 
to identify the common elements to guide the further presentation and 
discussion of relevant standards. The second interim report provides 
summaries of standards relevant to CAM. 



17. KEY WORDS (six to twelve entries; alphabetical order ; capitalize only the first letter of the first key word unless a proper 
name; separated by semicolons) 

CAM architectures; computer aided manufacturing; computer systems; 
standards; system integration; voluntary standards. 



18. AVAILABILITY | Unlimited 

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| I Order From Sup. of Doc., U.S. Government Printing Office 
Washington, D.C. 20402, SD Cat. No. 03 

□ Order From National Technical Information Service (NTIS) 
Springfield, Virginia 22151 



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